A Review on Whole Blood Pyrogen Assay
Dilip G. Maheshwari*, Ashish Patel1
The whole blood pyrogen test was first described in journal exactly twenty years ago.it employs the cytokine response of blood monocytes for the detection of microbiological contaminates with the potential to finally replace the still broadly used rabbit test. Its measure the fever reaction following injection of the sample to the animals. LAL which is measure the coagulation in a lysate prepared from blood of the horseshoe crab specifically initiated by endotoxins. Pyrogen detection is important in pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and health care institution. As an alternative to the animal consuming rabbit pyrogen test or limulus amoebocytes lysate test, the monocyte activation test was introduced as a gold standard method in European pharmacopoeia. The monocyte activation test has not gained wide acceptance in practice. We stimulate bovine whole blood with different endotoxin preparation (lipopolysaccharide E. coli) as well as the non-endotoxin pyrogen peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) served as read out. The test is the first solution enabling adequate pyrogen testing of cell therapies, including blood transfusion, and medical device. As the test can quantitatively assess human relevant airborne pyrogens, the contribution of pyrogens to chronic obstructive lung diseases and childhood asthma can for the first time be defined and home and work place safety improved in the future.
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