Advanced wearable nano sensors biomedical and environmental application
Rupesh Kumar Mishra
Wearable nano-sensors are fast-growing interdisciplinary research field that involves interfacing biomaterials with electronics, covering an array of biodevices, encompassing biofuel cells, biosensors, ingestible, and implantable. In particular, enzyme-based bioelectronics, built on diverse biocatalytic reactions, offers distinct advantages and represents a centerpiece of wearable biodevices. Such wearable bioelectronic devices predominately rely on oxido-reductase enzymes and have already demonstrated considerable promise for on-body applications ranging from highly selective noninvasive biomarker monitoring to epidermal energy harvesting. These systems can thus greatly increase the analytical capability of wearable devices from the ubiquitous monitoring of mobility and vital signs, toward the noninvasive analysis of important chemical biomarkers. Wearable enzyme electrodes offer exciting opportunities to a variety of areas, spanning from biomedical, healthcare, sport, to the environment or defense. These include real-time noninvasive detection of biomarkers in biofluids (such as sweat, saliva, interstitial fluid and tears), and the monitoring of environmental pollutants and security threats in the immediate surroundings of the wearer. In our work, we have demonstrated wearable sensors for cancer biomarker, drug, alcohol, glucose, nerve agents and for explosives using microneedles, gloves, bandage, eye glasses, tattoos and textiles in the recent past. Crucial for such successful application of enzymatic bioelectronics is deep knowledge of enzyme electron-transfer kinetics, enzyme stability, and enzyme immobilization strategies. Such understanding is critical for establishing efficient electrical contacting between the redox enzymes and the conducting electrode supports, which is of fundamental interest for the development of robust and efficient bioelectronic platforms.
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