Chemokines role in Liver immunity
Ms Rabia Kanwar
Immune cells secrete several cytokines which have protective and inflammatory functions. Chemokines are chemoattractant and low molecular weight (8-10kDa) cytokines. Chemokines recruits the leukocytes to the injury site and inflammation. There are four sub-families of chemokines i.e. CC, CX3C, CXC and C, can be differentiated on the base of presence or absence of one amino acid on N-terminal cysteine residues.Out of these families, CXC and CC are the most important and known to have a huge amount in humans. Continuous exposure of liver with exogenous particles such as microbial antigens and food make it more vulnerable and liver performed function of detoxifying these agents through the help of immune cells. These immune cells make a tolerogenic intrahepatic environment. These immune cells include KC, NKT cells, DC, NK LSEC and HSC’s. This special hepatic environment stimulates the chemokines to recruit many cells toward the liver under diseased conditions and inflammation. Chemokine recruitment of immune cells toward liver is the protective phenomenon but cause the inflammation of the liver which in turn becomes an alarming condition. Now a days many of the therapies are based on the inhibition of these chemokines, so that liver is less damaged. Early detection of these chemokines can help in early treatment of the disease and save the liver from damage.
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