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Remembering Cyclooxygenases: A Brief Review

Abstract

Ashok Kumar1, Ajay Gaur2

 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the competitive inhibitors of

cyclooxygenase, the enzyme which bioconvert the arachidonic acid to
inflammatory prostaglandins. Although their use is associated with the
side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity they are one of
the widely prescribed drugs. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action
of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired
side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Based upon that, a
number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (Rofecoxib, Celecoxib, Valdecoxib
etc.) were developed as safer NSAIDs. However, the recent market
removal of some COXIBs such as Rofecoxib due to its adverse
cardiovascular side effects clearly encourages the researchers to
explore and evaluate alternative templates with COX-2 inhibitory
activity. Recognition of new avenues for selective COX-2 inhibitors in
cancer chemotherapy and neurological diseases such as Parkinson and
Alzheimer’s diseases still continues to attract investigations on the
development of COX-2 inhibitors. This review highlights the therapeutic
profile as well as the future therapeutic potential of COX inhibitors with
highlighting their disadvantages as well.

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