Comparison of the Antineoplastic Activity of the free Cannabis Sativa L Extracts and Cannabidol (CBD)Ervin Ivanov*
Ervin Ivanov, Department of Natural medicine, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria, Email: [email protected]
Received: 01-Oct-2021 Accepted Date: Oct 15, 2021 ; Published: 26-Oct-2021
EditorialIn the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L, such as ╬?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (╬?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on inflammation and cancer-related pain. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal C. Sativa as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Several studies have described CBD as a multitarget molecule, acting as an adaptogen, and as a modulator, in different ways, depending on the type and location of disequilibrium both in the brain and in the body, mainly interacting with specific receptor proteins CB1 and CB2. CBD is present in both medicinal and fibre-type C sativa plants but, unlike ╬?9-THC, it is completely nonpsychoactive Fibre-type C sativa (hemp) differs from medicinal C. sativa, since it contains only few levels of ╬?9-THC and high levels of CBD and related nonpsychoactive compounds. In recent years, a number of preclinical researches have been focused on the role of CBD as an anticancer molecule, suggesting CBD (CBD-like molecules present in the hemp extract) as a possible candidate for future clinical trials.
CBD has been found to possess antioxidant activity in many studies, thus suggesting a possible role in the prevention of both neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, it has been found that coadministration of CBD and ╬?9-THC, followed by radiation therapy, causes an increase of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, CBD is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different types of cancer models. These activities seem to involve also alternative pathways, such as the interactions with TRPV and GRP55 receptor complexes. Moreover, the finding that the acidic precursor of CBD (cannabidiolic acid, CBDA) is able to inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and to down regulate the proto-oncogene c-fos and the Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) highlights the possibility that CBDA might act on a common pathway of inflammation and cancer mechanisms, which might be responsible for its anticancer activity. In the light of all these findings, in this review we explore the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of minor cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of ╬?9-THC deprived hemp.
The unfavorable side-effect profiles of most chemotherapeutics create incentive toward finding active substances with less toxicity. We compared the anti-neoplastic activity of different botanical substances (BDS) from Cannabis Sativa L (hemp) made using different manufacturing technologies by PBG Global in lymphoma, mammary gland adenocarcinoma and urinary bladder cancer. We also aimed to determine the benefits of different Cannabis Sativa L extracts compared to pure CBD reference in normalized doses.
Cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT assay. Used preparations - BDS#1 THC-free 30% CBD Cannabis Sativa L extract (Hemp), BDS#2 THC-free 60% CBD hemp extract, BDS#3 99% CBD isolate, all produced by PBG Global and BDS#4 99% CBD isolate analytical standard as reference compound was sourced from Sigma-Aldrich. We used following cell lines: T-24 (urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (mammary gland adenocarcinoma), HuT-78 (S├ęzary syndrome CTCL), and MJ (mycosis fungoides CTCL).
All concentrations were normalized to equal amount of active ingredient CBD. There was significanÔ??t difference between tested extracts compared to pure CBD. THC-free 30% CBD Cannabis Sativa L extract demonstrate stronger antineoplastic efficacy against HuT-78 (IC50 of 7, 78 ╬╝mol/L) and MDA-MB-231 (IC50 of 5, 32 ╬╝mol/L) cells as compared to BDS#2. In contrast, THC-free 60% CBD Cannabis Sativa L extract was more active in T-24 (IC50 of 0, 12╬╝mol/L) and MJ (IC50 of 2, 45 ╬╝mol/L) cells. Taken together our data indicate that all tested natural products have varying antitumor effects and the method of manufacturing influences the final composition and activity. All studied plant extracts and pure CBD appear to exert beneficial effects thus making them perspective Ingredients of the complex treatment of some human malignant diseases.