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Serotonin In Brain: A Cue for Alzheimerâ??s Disease

Abstract

Vivek Sharma*, Anita, Rajni Sharma,Rajender Guleria

 Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common fatal neurodegenerative disorder

is manifested by core features of progressive memory impairment,
visuospatial decline, aphasia, agnosia, loss of executive function and
severe neuropsychiatric changes like hallucinations and depression. AD
is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction, but treatments targeting
the cholinergic system alone have yielded disappointing results.
Present review focuses on the investigation of possible involvement of
serotonin (5-HT) in pathogenesis of AD beside its versatile role in brain
physiology. Serotonin has been implicated in almost every conceivable
physiologic or behavioural function like affect, aggression, appetite,
cognition, memory, sleep, emesis, endocrine functions, gastrointestinal
functions, motor functions, neurotrophism, perception, sensory
functions, sex, and vascular function etc. In addition to its physiological
role, growing evidence suggests the neuromodulator serotonin also
regulates the connectivity of the brain by modulating developmental
cellular migration and cyto-architecture. Pathologically, it is involved in
depression, aggression, anxiety and disturbances in food intake. This
plethora of roles has consequently led to the development of many
compounds of therapeutic value, including various antidepressant,
antipsychotic and antiemetic drugs. Investigation of serotonin is
encouraged by the act that there is serotonin loss in normal aging and
neuropsychiatric diseases of late life which may contribute to
behavioural changes. Continuous researches over the years have found
that instead of malfunction of single neurotransmitter, AD is a
multineurotransmitter deficit thus role of other neurotransmitter
particularly 5HT, beside Ach needs thorough investigation.

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