• Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    By Vidhya Ananthi*, Ahmed John-
    (566) (24)

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan.

    Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Dasatinib in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    By Vatchavai Bhaskara Raju*, Bonthu Mohan Gandhi, Kamatham Srinivas Sumanth, Kolli Srinivas, Badarala Pallavi-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Cosmicsil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm), 5 µ particle size was used as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer: a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 50:50, v/v. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 315 nm. The retention time was 6.4675 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 20-60 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage assay of Dasatinib was 100.10%. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Qualitative Assessment and Investigation of Antifungal Activity of Methanolic and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Tectona Grandis Linn Seeds

    By Jangme C.M.*, Bais S.K., Wadulkar R.D.-
    (566) (24)

    Tectona grandis has been claimed to be useful in treatment of microbial and fungal infections and the current literature survey revealed that no systematic approach has been made towards documentation of this claim. The currently available synthetic antimicrobial agents are associated with numerous serious side effects like hypersensitivity, crystalluria, photosensitivity, hepatic and renal damage, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity etc. These adverse effects either restrict the continuation of therapy or demand for additional drug/s to combat them. This in turn indicates the need of alternative value addition therapy. In light of this, Methanolic and Petroleum ether extract of Tectona grandis was screened for its antifungal activity by using fungal culture but none of extracts were found to be significant in this regard. The claim mentioned in an ancient period may be of value especially in absence of today’s effective antifungal agents. As far as today’s minimum standard required, it cannot be promoted as antifungal as per these observation.

    Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

    By Vidhya Ananthi T*, Ahmed John S-
    (566) (24)

    The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling.

    Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

    By Mukesh Kumar Singh, Xu Chuanbin, Chunbin Zhang, Zhang Wu*, Meghna Mitali, Xiaoyi Liu-
    (566) (24)

    Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA.

    Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method and RP – HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone In Synthetic Mixture

    By Jinal Alkesh Gheewala*, Dilip Girish Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    The present Article portrays simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and cost effective First order derivative Spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone in Synthetic Mixture. In The first order derivative method absorption at 228.5 nm (zero crossing point for Pioglitazone) was used for Teneligliptin and 269.2 nm (zero crossing point for Teneligliptin) was used for Pioglitazone. The linearity was taken in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml for Teneligliptin and 3-15 µg/ml for Pioglitazone with correlation coefficient (R2) 0.995 and 0.997, respectively. For The RP-HPLC method linearity was taken in the concentration range of 1- 5 µg/ml for Teneligliptin and 1.5-7.5 µg/ml for Pioglitazone with correlation coefficient (R2) 0.998 and 0.996, respectively. Proposed technique has been validated as per ICH guideline and successfully applied to the simultaneous estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone in their Synthetic Mixture. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

    Preliminary Phytochemical and Trace metal Screening from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    By Vidhya Ananthi*, Ahmed John-
    (566) (24)

    Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is a perennial legume shrub belong to the family Fabaceae. Its application in respiratory infection, vermifuge properties, anti – ulcer, wound healing, dermatosis, convulsions, hepatoprotective is practised by the villagers. The aim of the present study focussed on the phytochemical constituents and Heavy metal concentration of Ethanolic extract of leaves from Cajanus cajan. The leaves were collected from Tiruchirappalli District, Southern India. The primary metabolites like Chlorophyll content, Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipids were present in the ethanolic extract of leaves. Likewise the secondary metabolites revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds such as Steroids, Sugar, Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Amino acids. The Trace metal concentrations were analysed from the powdered plant leaves by 797 VA Computrace Voltammetry, Mertrohm. This study will provide referential information of anti-microbial and anti-fouling efficacy of the plant Cajanus cajan.

    Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Dasatinib in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    By Vatchavai Bhaskara Raju*, Bonthu Mohan Gandhi, Kamatham Srinivas Sumanth, Kolli Srinivas, Badarala Pallavi-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Cosmicsil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm), 5 µ particle size was used as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer: a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 50:50, v/v. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 315 nm. The retention time was 6.4675 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 20-60 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage assay of Dasatinib was 100.10%. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the estimation of Dasatinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Qualitative Assessment and Investigation of Antifungal Activity of Methanolic and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Tectona Grandis Linn Seeds

    By Jangme C.M.*, Bais S.K., Wadulkar R.D.-
    (566) (24)

    Tectona grandis has been claimed to be useful in treatment of microbial and fungal infections and the current literature survey revealed that no systematic approach has been made towards documentation of this claim. The currently available synthetic antimicrobial agents are associated with numerous serious side effects like hypersensitivity, crystalluria, photosensitivity, hepatic and renal damage, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity etc. These adverse effects either restrict the continuation of therapy or demand for additional drug/s to combat them. This in turn indicates the need of alternative value addition therapy. In light of this, Methanolic and Petroleum ether extract of Tectona grandis was screened for its antifungal activity by using fungal culture but none of extracts were found to be significant in this regard. The claim mentioned in an ancient period may be of value especially in absence of today’s effective antifungal agents. As far as today’s minimum standard required, it cannot be promoted as antifungal as per these observation.

    Cajanus Cajan Mediated Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial efficacy and its Antifouling Application on Metal Coupons

    By Vidhya Ananthi T*, Ahmed John S-
    (566) (24)

    The present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AuNPs using Leaf extract of Cajanus cajan and its characterization through UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DLS – Size Distribution and Zeta potential and biofilm accumulation analysis by Epi – Florescence Microscopy. The ability of the green synthesized Gold Nanoparticles to control/prevent the biofilm forming bacterial communities (which were considered as primary colonizers) was analysed by conducting the antimicrofouling studies. The Gold Nanoparticles were found to control the growth and survival of biofilm forming bacteria effectively on SS304 metal coupons. The present work gives scope for the possible development of formulations containing AuNps as effective antifouling agent that could prevent microfouling, thereby preventing marine biofouling.

    Clinical Applications and Anatomic Variation of Inferior Phrenic Arteries and their Branches by 64-Slice Spiral CT Angiographic Analysis

    By Mukesh Kumar Singh, Xu Chuanbin, Chunbin Zhang, Zhang Wu*, Meghna Mitali, Xiaoyi Liu-
    (566) (24)

    Objectives: The present study aims at determining the ability of 64-slice spiral CT angiographic analysis to identify the origin and distribution of both the left and right IPAs and its branches in normal and pathological cases. Methods: Three hundred cases of normal healthy subjects aged 20-89 years (median age = 54 years) who received the 64-slice spiral CT of abdominal vessel two-stage contrast-enhanced from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from August 2015 to February 2016 were selected for the study. Then the bilateral origin of the IPA was recorded, diameter and performance were measured, and the obtained data was then compared with that of the normal group. The statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results and Conclusion: In addition, the IPA is frequently reconstructed through several pathways, mainly through the retroperitoneal network. The study also aims to apply such findings to the clinical scenario of treating HCC. IPA with 64-slice spiral CT angiography can clearly show the normal anatomy and variation of IPA.

    Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method and RP – HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone In Synthetic Mixture

    By Jinal Alkesh Gheewala*, Dilip Girish Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    The present Article portrays simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and cost effective First order derivative Spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone in Synthetic Mixture. In The first order derivative method absorption at 228.5 nm (zero crossing point for Pioglitazone) was used for Teneligliptin and 269.2 nm (zero crossing point for Teneligliptin) was used for Pioglitazone. The linearity was taken in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml for Teneligliptin and 3-15 µg/ml for Pioglitazone with correlation coefficient (R2) 0.995 and 0.997, respectively. For The RP-HPLC method linearity was taken in the concentration range of 1- 5 µg/ml for Teneligliptin and 1.5-7.5 µg/ml for Pioglitazone with correlation coefficient (R2) 0.998 and 0.996, respectively. Proposed technique has been validated as per ICH guideline and successfully applied to the simultaneous estimation of Teneligliptin and Pioglitazone in their Synthetic Mixture. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

    Prescription Pattern of Drugs In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension In A Tertiary Care Hospital

    By N. Divyashree*, V. J. Divya, Tapendra Bhattarai, Joga Sasidhar-
    (566) (24)

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted by department of Pharmacy practice in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics in a tertiary care hospital at Karnataka after taking permission from the Institutional Review Board. WHO basic indicators were indicators were used for studying the prescribing pattern of drugs. The study involves collection and documentation of case sheets and treatment charts of inpatients with a diagnosis of pregnancy induced hypertension along with other co morbidities. Results: Out of the total prescriptions studied the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive was nifedipine , followed by labetalol and methyldopa . Majority drugs prescribed were from category C and B. Single drug therapy was prescribed in 77.01% patients. The use of fixed dose combinations was low. Conclusion: The incidence of single drugs therapy and two drugs was high. Nifedipine was the commonly prescribed antihypertensive. None of the prescribed drugs were from teratogenic category D and X.

    Antimicrobial Activity of Citrus Fruit Pulp, Whole Citrus Fruit Juice and Silver Nano Particles Synthesized Using Citrus Fruit Pulp

    By Suneeta Panicker*, Pawan Chavan, Amit Sharma, Laxmi Singh, Nivedita Khandve-
    (566) (24)

    Citrus fruits are suggested as antimicrobial agents from ancient times. Several microorganism derived antibiotics currently in use to treat a variety of human diseases, but the problem of antibiotic resistance is upcoming rapidly due to various factors. The demand for novel antimicrobial agents from natural resources has been increased worldwide. The present study was carried out to find the antimicrobial activity of pulp juice, whole fruit juice & the combination of citrus fruits (lemon, orange, sweet lime). Antibacterial analysis showed that lemon juice was highly active against all the tested organisms, whereas the orange and sweet lime showed very less & no activity respectively. The combinations of the three citrus juices were active against all the tested organisms but the Gram positive bacteria were more sensitive than Gram negative. The lemon pulp juice also showed a high antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Furthermore, Nanoparticles with antimicrobial property, biosynthesized using different sources are of significance in therapeutic applications of nanotechnology. We also synthesized Silver Nano particles were from fruit pulp juices. It was found that the antibacterial activity of lemon was enhanced whereas orange and sweet lime silver Nano particles were also active against all test organisms.

    Chronic Arsenic Toxicity and Cancer

    By Kunal Kanti Majumdar-
    (566) (24)

    Arsenic pollution in ground water has been envisaged as a problem of Global concern. Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India and Bangladesh. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause increased risk of skin, lung, kidney, bladder cancer, liver disease and chronic respiratory problems. The exact molecular mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still less understood. Both arsenite and its metabolites can have a variety of genotoxic effects, which may be mediated by oxidants or free radical species. All of these species also have effects on signaling pathways leading to proliferative responses. There are interesting differences in the activities of inorganic and organic species both in terms of target organ carcinogenicity and genotoxic and toxic mechanisms. A scientific consensus has not yet been reached on the many suggested modes of arsenic carcinogenesis that exist in the literature. These include modes that are predominately genotoxic (i.e.,chromosomal abnormalities, oxidative stress, and gene amplification) vs. more nongenotoxic (i.e., altered growth factors, enhanced cell proliferation and promotion of carcinogenesis, and altered DNA repair). Likewise, the dose-response relationship at low arsenic concentrations for any of these suggested modes is not known.

    Alteration of Acetylcholinesterase Mediatory Cognitive Behavioral Pattern through Phytomedicine (MEC-01) in Wistar Rats

    By Tapas K. Sur*, Avijit Hazra-
    (566) (24)

    MEC-01 is a phytomedicine composed with C. pluricaulis, B. monnieri, C. asiatica, A. racemosus, N. jatamansi and Withania somnifera. The aim of the present study was to find out underlying mechanism of MEC-01 on cognitive behavioral pattern in experimental animals. The total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging, brain lipid peroxidation and acetylcholine esterase in inhibitory actions of MEC-01 was studied in in vitro methods. Cognitive functions were assessed by passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests in normal and scopolamine induced memory impaired mice. The findings revealed that MEC-01 has enriched in phenolic compounds, inhibited free radicals scavenge, exerted protective actions against brain lipid peroxidation and inhibited central acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity. MEC has no lethality up to the oral single dose of 2000 mg/kg in mice. Moreover, MEC-01 exhibited improvement in retention of learning in normal and cognitive deficit animals. The results indicate MEC-01 can facilitate learning and memory and possesses significant antidementic properties that may be mediated via acetylcholine esterase attenuating neuronal functions.

    Evaluation of Plasma Lactate and Electrolytes In Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    By Narwade N B*, Kolpe D V, Udaykiran Bhalge-
    (566) (24)

    Aim: To estimate sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) , bicarbonate (HCO3─) and lactate levels in arterial blood of diabetes mellitus type II patients. Material and Method: 90 non-alcoholic, non-smoker subjects above the age of 40 years were participated in the present study, subdivided in 3 groups. Group 1: 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose < 400 mg/dl. Group 2 : 30 diabetic subjects above the age of 40 years suffering from diabetes mellitus type II as diagnosed by the physician and having random plasma glucose ≥ 400 mg/dl. Control group : 30 non-diabetic age and sex matched subjects. Arterial blood samples were collected from radial artery in a heparinised syringe & processed immediately on blood gas analyzer GEM PREMIER 3000, using GEM PREMIER 3000 pak cartridge. Results: There was significant decrease in plasma sodium levels in diabetic patients compared to controls. Plasma potassium levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients than controls. Conclusion: Uncontrolled hyperglycemia (group 2 diabetics) is significantly associated with electrolyte imbalance and lactic acidosis in type II diabetes mellitus patients. It was concluded that electrolyte imbalance found in diabetics may have great potential as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice and have a significant effect upon controlling the risk of many diseases & complications.

    Comparative Assessment of Analytical Methods of Orally Disintegrated Tablet of Ondansetron

    By Ansari Yaasir Ahmed Razzaq*, Gulam Javed Khan, Ansari Abdul Aleem, Ansari Abubakar, Jamil Ahmad Mohammad Abbas-
    (566) (24)

    Ondansetron ODT, most widely used anti-emetic drug, in this regard, the Research and Validation of reliable analytical method for determination. The main aim of present Research work to Validate a method for estimation of Ondansetron ODT by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. For Chromatographic determination, mixture of Potassium phosphate:acetonitrile(52:48) was used as mobile phase, the column having length of 4.6 mm × 25 cm and containing packing L7 which is maintained at 45 ± 1 ˚C temperature. The injection volume was 10 µl and the flow rate was 1.5 mL/min. The assay method was validated for analytical parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, system suitability, robustness and range. From the results it is concluded that, HPLC is less time consuming and cost reducing and the results obtained are more accurate, precise and reproducible as compared to UV

    Formulation and Characterization of Oral Suspension Containing Ibuprofen

    By M. Sudhir*, Ch. Divya, N. Lakshmi Prasanti, Sk. Liakhat Ali, Ch. Fridepaul, N.Jyothi-
    (566) (24)

    The present work was aimed with the objective of formulating oral suspension of ibuprofen to enhance the convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients. The suspension were prepared by incorporating the prepared ibuprofen physical mixtures so as to achieve the aimed percent drug release (using poloxomer, Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and PolyVinaylAlcohol (PVA)) in sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as dispersing medium. Particular attention was given to the selection of the suitable taste masking agents. The suspension was characterized in term of ibuprofen content, viscosity, and sedimentation volume and dissolution test. The promising suspension F8 having the optimal formula showing the greatest dissolution and satisfactory sedimentation volume and physico-mechanical properties compared with a reference marketed product. FT-IR studies revealed that there is no interaction between the drug and the polymers used in the study. Rheological studies revealed significant difference between the suspensions that the incorporation of PVP and PVA enhances the viscosity of the suspension as a result the rate of dissolution was retarded.

    Estimation of Gallic Acid in the Seed Extracts of Syzygium cumini

    By Amudha S*, P. K. Manna, Jeganathan N.S, Anbazhagan S-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of gallic acid present in raw seed powder, and in the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Syzygium cumini seed by using reverse phase High pressure liquid chromatography. The method was carried out on a Phenomenex kromosil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5µ) using mobile phase of 2ml orthophosphoric acid in 1000ml water and methanol with a gradient elution at the flow rate of 1 ml/min, with the detection wavelength at 272 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration showed a good linear relationship with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. The developed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and the method has the advantage of being both rapid and easy and hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of herbal preparations containing Syzygium cumini constituents

    Analytical Quality by Design (QbD) Approach to RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Meloxicam

    By Anup A. Puranpole*, Vijayalaxmi A. Chavan, Priyanka Kodrikar, Ganesh Mali-
    (566) (24)

    Quality by Design (QbD) refers to a holistic approach towards drug development. Meloxicam is a Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which acts by inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase 1 and 2) leading to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thereby exerts anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Though, various analytical methods have been reported, but they are tedious, difficult to reproduce and time consuming. So there is need to develop a novel RP-HPLC method to overcome this problem. A simple, fast and robust HPLC analytical method was developed by employing experimental design. In experimental design, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to study the significance of the method critical factors such as % composition of mobile phase, flow rate and wavelength on the response (asymmetric factor) was tested. The Reverse Phase (RP) HPLC method was successfully developed and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots exhibited linear relationship (r2 = 0.999) over a concentration range of 25–125µg/ml and the linear regression equation was y = 41905x – 53177. The % coefficient of variation for both intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 2%. The good recoveries of MLX were obtained as more than 99%. The proposed method has proven that method is accurate, precise, reproducible and suitable for regulatory flexibility.

    In Vitro Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Methnaolic Extract of borassus Flabellifer linn. Leaves on Different Human Cancer Cell Lines

    By Ashok P. Gingine*, Tukaram M. Kalyankar, S. V. Mandge, Prasad G. Jamkhande-
    (566) (24)

    Identification of new anticancer medicinedevoidof life threatening side effects as that of synthetic anticancer drug is the need of today’s cancer treatment. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine is based on plant as a source of medicine. Medicinal plants such as Picrorhiza KurroaRoyle ex Benth., Cetrus deodaraRoxband herbal formulations like Triphala ghrita, Sthauneyaka and Madhusnuhi rasayana are mentioned in the Ayurveda for the treatment of tumour. Plants ofBorrasus family are well known fortheir medicinal and nutritional values.Borassus flabellifer Linn. is traditionally important medicinal plant and is widely distributed in India.The methanolic extractof Borassus flabellifer Linn.was screened against colon cancer (HCT15), Human lung cancer (Hop65) and Human hepatoma (HEPG2) cell lines using SulforhodamineB (SRB) assay. Adriamycin was used as a standard to compare the results of methanolic leaves extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.The findings revealed that extract do not inhibit growth of these cell lines with no potential anticancer effects. These results indicate that methanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer Linn.is not effective against these cancer cell lines. However, further studies are needed to test extract against other cancer cell lines to reveal its anticancer effect.

    Validated Stability Indicating Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Degradation Behavior of Pyrimethamine and Sulphadoxine in Tablet Formulation

    By Raghunath D. Wadulkar*, T. M. Kalyankar, O. A. Khogre, K. Anitha-
    (566) (24)

    A new, simple, rapid and novel stability indicating spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for estimation of degradation behavior of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine in tablet formulation. For this, first order derivative method is used. The method involved measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 273.8 nm and 262.5 nm of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine respectively. This method obeys Beer’s law in the employed concentration ranges of 1-6 µg/ml and 4-24 µg/ml for pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in this concentration range with correlation coefficient of 0.997 and 0.998 for pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine respectively. The accuracy and precision of the method were determined and validated according to ICH guidelines. The method has good reproducibility with percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) less than two. The proposed method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, limits of detection (LOD), quantitation (LOQ) and reproducibility. The observations were found within the limits, stability study was performed for both drugs by using acid, base, neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolytic degradations which indicate the stability indicating property of the method. The proposed method is recommended for routine analysis work since it is rapid, simple, accurate, specific and sensitive.

    Stability Indicating UV Spectrophotometric Assay Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of Ranitidine and Dicyclomine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    By R.D. Wadulkar*, T. M. Kalyankar, A. A. Pawar, K. Anitha-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, accurate, economic and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous estimation of ranitidine and dicyclomine has been developed and validated. The method was involved the measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 325 nm and 218 nm for ranitidine and dicyclomine respectively by using methanol as solvent. The method was found to be linear in the range of 3-18 µg/ml for ranitidine and 1-6 µg/ml for dicyclomine respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation as per ICH guidelines. The method has good reproducibility with % RSD less than two. Thus, proposed method can be successfully applied for ranitidine and dicyclomine in routine analysis work.

    Extraction and Encapsulation of Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris.L) Extract Using Spray Dryer

    By K. Poornima, B. Priya-
    (566) (24)

    This study aims to obtain encapsulated beetroot extract in a powder form using spray drying technology. The beetroot extract, as core material was obtained using aqueous extraction method. The encapsulated beetroot extract powder was produced by spray drying process using the combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic as wall material in the ratio of 1:2 (core material : wall material), and drying inlet air temperatures at 120°C, 140°C and 160°C as independent parameters. Thus the effect on spray drying inlet air temperatures on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content and betanin content of encapsulated beetroot extract powder was evaluated.

    Extracellular Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Actinomycetes and their Antibacterial Activity

    By Raja Prabu M, Janani P R, Prabakaran P-
    (566) (24)

    In the present study, isolate and identify the pigment producing actinomycetes, to identify the bioactive compounds and biologically synthesis silver nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria. A total of seven actinomycetes were isolated from soil samples and tested against pathogenic bacteria. Out of seven isolates, three isolates [A1, A3 and A7] showed better result against pathogenic bacteria by primary screening. Out of three isolates, A1 and A7 were subjected to secondary screening, identification, growth study (temperature and pH), mass multiplication and synthesis of silver nanoparticles methods. The potential isolates was identified by morphological and biochemical tests (Streptomyces sp.). The optimum temperature as room temperature 28oC and favorable pH was 7. The cell free extract of potential isolate was assessed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed major peak at 420 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens.

    Characterization and Optimization of Thermostable Alkaline Protease Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Tannery effluent

    By Siddharthan N, Rajaprabu M, Janani P R, Poongothai E, Hemalatha N*-
    (566) (24)

    Proteases are being an industrial candidate, which are widely used in bakery, beverages and detergent industry. The leather industry deals with proteinous skin material for the conversion of leather and this generates huge amount of solid and liquid wastes giving rise to pollution that need to be overcome by introducing sustainable cleaner technologies. This study is a search for potential protease producing strain from tannery industry effluent. Different isolates were screened for the ability to produce protease. Then the potential organisms were tested using various biochemical tests, which lead to their identification as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effects of various environmental factors on the production of protease were studied. The organism showed the maximum growth and enzyme production at pH 8.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The protease enzyme was purified using ammonium sulphate (70%) precipitation. Further purification was done by membrane dialysis. The crude and partially purified protease was preliminary characterized and used for dehairing process and destaining process at lab scale level in which the dialyzed fraction showed comparatively significant effect. The protease obtained from these strains showed good stability and activity in pH ranges of 8 and at temperature of 40⁰C suggesting the possibility of using the enzyme in leather, detergent, food tenderization and many such industries.

    Studies on Ethnomedicinally important plants of Bariya Forest Division, Gujarat (India)

    By Munjalsinh J Parmar*, Parul Joshi-
    (566) (24)

    Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal surveys are important as they lead to possible drug discoveries. An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in Bariya Forest Division to document medicinally important flora and related traditional knowledge. The data of local traditional uses were collected through personal and group interviews, and field visits with locals, and faith healers. The present study revealed 99 plant species belonging to 56 different families reported to be traditionally used by the ethnic groups receding in the peripheries of the forests of the Bariya Forest Division. The identification of the listed plants here is based on The Flora of Gujarat State. The collected and identified plants were deposited at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad.

    Formulation, Development and Characterization of Chronotherapeutic Time Released Press Coated Nizatidine Tablets

    By Pavan Nathu Patil*, Dr. Dhananjay M. Patil, Dr. Vinod A. Bairagi-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of present study was to develop and characterize pulsatile release tablets of Nizatidine, H2 antagonist, for effective treatment of Peptic ulcer. The pulsatile tablets prepared by compression coating method consisted of two different parts: a core tablet, containing the active ingredient and an erodible outer coating layer of polymer. The rapid release core tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrant along with active ingredient. Compression coating of optimized core tablets was done by using HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose. The effect of formulation composition on the barrier layer comprising both polymers, excipients on the lag time of drug release was investigated. The Core tablets and press coated tablets were evaluated for weight variation test, thickness, hardness, friability, Disintegration, lag time and dissolution study. An increase in lag time was observed with the increasing concentration in each case. Formulation F4 containing HPMC K100M and Ethyl Cellulose was found to provide desired lag time, drug release profile, better integrity among all formulations and thus, compliant with the chronotherapeutic objective of Peptic Ulcer.

    RP-HPLC Method Development And Validation For Simultaneous Estimation of Artemether and Lumefantrine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    By Ganesh Mali*, Vilas Arsul*, Anup Puranpole, Yogesh Nalte-
    (566) (24)

    The importance of Antimalarial drugs are increasing day by day & used for method development by reverse phase HPLC. In literature survey few analytical methods have been reported for determination of drug out of which some are time consuming and costly. So this research work is dedicated to develop simple, efficient, Economical, fast, reliable and new method for estimation of Selected drug. RP-HPLC analysis was performed on the Grace C-18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5 µm particle size and using Acetonitrile: Potassium Phosphate buffer (60:40v/v) as mobile phase; flow rate was adjusted to 1 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 215 nm. The average retention times of Artemether and Lumefantrine was observed 8.11 min and 10.25 min at 215 nm wavelength respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration ranges of 2–10µg/ml (r2 = 0.999) for ART and 12 - 60 µg/ml (r2 = 0.999) for LUME. The method has been successively applied for the determination of ARTEMETHER and LUMAFANTRINE in tablet formulation. There was no interference from the excipients commonly present in the tablet. Accuracy of the method was studied by the recovery studies at three different levels 80 %, 100 % and 120 % level. The % recovery was found to be within the limits of the acceptance criteria with average recovery of 97-105%. The method was found to be accurate, precise and specific for estimation of Artemether and Lumefantrine drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Method Development and Validation of Cetirizine hydrochloride, Phenylephrine hydrochloride and Nimesulide by UV and HPLC

    By Vilas Arsul*, Ashok Kagane, Supriya Wagh-
    (566) (24)

    Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide, one of the most commonly prescribed Nasal decongestant, Antihistamine and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory respectively, In this regard, the research and development of reliable analytical methods for self-determination. It is freely soluble in water, methanol and acetonitrile. Insoluble in acetone. The main aim of present Research work is to develop and validate a method for estimation of Cetirizine HCL, Phenylephrine HCL & Nimesulide by the using of UV visible spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Double beam UV –visible spectrophotometer with 10 mm matched quartz cell (Shimadzu -1700) one is sample and other is reference were use for quantitative estimation of Phenylephrine HCL, Cetirizine HCL and Nimesulide. The various trials were carried out by varying parameters. RP-HPLC method for estimation of pharmaceutical dosage form was developed successfully. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini C18 stainless steel column with dimension 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size. The mobile phase consisting of a acetonitrile : water (ph3) 60:40 v/v) was delivered at rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was made at 229 nm. Mobile phase was filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter paper and degassed before analysis. Separation was performed at ambient temperature.

    Drug Utilization Evaluation For Postoperative Patients In Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department In A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    By T Lakshmi Suseela, S Jaya Jyothi , T Mahendra, E Sam Jeeva Kumar-
    (566) (24)

    A growing number of pharmaceutical products are available in the world market and there has been an increase both in the consumption of the drugs and in expenditure on them. The main aim of the study was to analyze drug use pattern in a post-operative patients in obstetrics and gynaecology ward and to assess the prescribing indicators (WHO: Core Drug Use Indicators). A prospective, concurrent and retrospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months, after getting approval by the Institutional Ethics committee. A well designed patient data collection proforma for collecting the required data from post-operative patients by using chart review method in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis with the help of SPSS software. The results shown are a total of 582 cases were analyzed during the following study period. Out of 582 patients, 559 (96%) were prescribed with parenteral Cefotaxime and Metronidazole. Post-operative pain was managed with Tramadol (87%). All patients were prescribed with an antibacterial agent and analgesic (100%). The percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed was 100% in our study. Out of 19 different drugs prescribed, 16 (84.21%) were from the Essential Medicines WHO Model List (2015) and 10 (52.63%) were prescribed by their generic name. Accordingly, the study can be concluded as it provides valuable insight about the overall pattern of drug used in postoperative patients. The study is useful in decreasing the irrational prescription, which helps to decrease the morbidity and health care burden in the society.

    A Study On Risk Factors And Clinical Presentations Of Ectopic Pregnancy In Women Attending A Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    By T Lakshmi Suseela, Y. Aruna, S Jaya Jyothi , M. Venkata Subbaiah-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the nightmare and a life threatening condition. The rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the past few years is due to a number of risk factors which include pelvic inflammatory disease & availability of better diagnostic techniques. There is increased frequency of ectopic after IVF and related techniques. Tubal pregnancy may be due to factors that retard the passage of fertilized ovum, conditions which increase tubal receptivity and factors intrinsic in the conceptus. Aim: The present study was designed to study the risk factors and clinical prentations of ectopic pregnancy attending to a tertiary care centre. Materials and methods: It was a prospective study on 50 cases of ectopic pregnancy conducted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology, RIMS Medical college and general hospital KADAPA, for a period of 2 years were included. Detailed history suggestive of risk factors for ectopic pregnancy, menstrual and obstetric history was taken. general, systemic, abdominal and vaginal examinations were done. Results and Discussion: A total of 12132 deliveries were confirmed during the study period, of which 50 cases of ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed, giving an incidence of o.41%. 74% were in the age group of 21- 30 years. 90% of women were multigravidae and 10% were primigravidae. 64% of the patients had identifiable risk factors, of which past history of PID in 32%, history of previous abortion in 12%, infertility in 10%, history of previous ectopic pregnancy in 4%, usage of IUCD and OCP in 4% each and tubectomy in 10% were noted. 98% had amenorrhea, followed by pain abdomen in 100%, bleeding PV in 82%, fainting and syncopal attack in 6%% of the patients. Pallor in 90%% of the cases, 6% presented with shock was noted. Percentage of haemoglobin was <7 gms in 68% .ectopic pregnancy presents as ruptured ectopic in 48 cases, and unruptured in 2 cases. Conclusion: Increasing awareness among sexually active women and men regarding safe sexual practices and contraception decrease abortions and reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy. All high risk women should be screened at the earliest with serum B-hCG and TVS. The impact on future fertility can be improved by focusing on primary prevention and early diagnosis before rupture.

    Development and Validation RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Telmisartan and Nifedipine In Synthetic Mixture

    By Zeel T. Doshi*, Jignesh S. Shah, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, specific and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Telmisartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture. The using Phenomenex Luna C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column in Isocratic mode, with Mobile Phase containing ACN: Water: Methanol in the ratio of (10:20:70 v/v/v) pH 3.8 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid at detection wavelength 234 nm with flow rate is 1 ml/min and run time is 15 min. the average retention time was found to b 2.563 min and 4.403 min for TEL and NIFE respectively. The calibration was linear in concentration range of 4-20 𝜇g/mL for TEL and 2-10 𝜇g/mL for NIFE. The low RSD (< 2%) Value indicates that the method is precise. The recoveries for TEL and NIFE were found to be in the range of 99-100%. The proposed method was Validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Telmisartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Curcumin Loaded Gastro-Retentive Multi particulate Drug Delivery System

    By Gopalsingh Devda, Shreeraj Shah, Shital Trivedi-
    (566) (24)

    To develop and optimize a multiparticulate gastro-retentive floating dosage form of Curcumin with targeted and sustained release characteristics. Curcumin give protective effect against Inflammation and Cancer but the physicochemical properties of the molecules leads to poor solubility and stability. Aqueous solubility was enhanced by complex formation with Hydroxypropyl β-Cyclodextrin (HP β-CD). This complex with enhanced solubility profile was further used to prepare multiparticulate floating pellets. Floating pellets of Curcumin HP β-CD complex were prepared by Extrusion-Spheronization technique using Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100 M) as low density controlled release polymer, Ethyl cellulose as a release retardant polymer and Sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The formulations were evaluated for In vitro Drug release, Buoyancy and Surface morphology study. The investigation revealed that floating pellets of Batch B3 possessed optimum formulation characteristics. The drug release from pellets was Non fickian and sufficiently sustained for 12 hr. This study indicates that multiparticulate gastro-retentive floating dosage form of Curcumin HP β-CD complex with sustained release characteristics can be safely and effectively used to treat Gastric cancer.

    A Prospective Study on Identification of Actual and Potential Drug Related Problems in Geriatric Patients: The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist

    By M. Nandhini*, V. Santhosh Kumar-
    (566) (24)

    Drug related problems can be defined as the drug therapy that potentially or actually interferes with desired health outcomes. Drug related problems are common among elderly (Geriatric) patients using multiple drugs for the treatment of chronic disease. The fact that elderly patients take more medication for the treatment of several diseases makes them more vulnerable to the occurrence of many drug related problems and also due to the physiological changes that occurs with advancing age. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering drugs. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of elderly people in the developed and as well as developing countries although the disability rates among the elderly population were declining in the developed countries but increasing in the developing countries due to limited pharmaceutical care. The increase in the life expectancy has posed one of the toughest challenges to be met by the health care professionals and by the society. As life expectancy increases, there is a need to improve the health, quality of life, discovery of new treatments, prevention strategies, improving health behaviour and medication use. In this study, drug related problems in elderly patients are being studied and pharmacist interventions are being made for better therapeutic efficacy and improved quality of life. The main aim of the study was to analyse the usage of drugs among geriatric patients and the Drug related problems associated with it. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The result of the study shows, males (62.8%) were more affected by chronic disease than females (36%). The most common drug related problem was found to be Drug interaction, Drug duplication and followed by the long duration of drugs. Patient counseling being the cause of many drug related problems were able to be rectified and also imposing to the patient the importance of compliance better therapeutic care was provided. Our study concludes that pharmacist intervention can reduce drug related problems and thereby providing better pharmaceutical care.

    Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Passiflora Nepalensis in Rats

    By S. Verma*, D. Tripathi-
    (566) (24)

    This study was conducted to investigate the diuretic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of Passiflora nepalensis in rats. The extract at doses of 10, 30 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally in acute diuretic model. Furosemide (10 mg/kg i.p) was used as standard drug. Total urine volume and urinary excretion of electrolytes were measured. Preliminary phytochemical tests were also performed using standard procedures. The extract exhibited a significant dose dependent diuretic effect at all the doses when compared to control group. Urinary excretion of sodium was significantly increased by the extract while a significant increase in potassium excretion was only observed at higher doses. Phytochemical analysis illustrated that the extract contained compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. It is conceivable therefore that the aqueous methanolic extract of P. nepalensis contain certain biologically active compounds that might be responsible for the diuretic activity.

    Development and Characterization of Mucoadhesive HBsAg PLGA Microsphere for Nasal Vaccine Delivery

    By M. Ramvikas*, K. S. Jaganathan, Mohamed Ashraf Ali-
    (566) (24)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mucoadhesive property of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loaded surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for nasal vaccine delivery. The surface modification was carried out using coating material such as chitosan, Trimethyl chitosan and N-trimethyl chitosan and N-carboxymethyl chitosan (TMC-CMC). The developed formulations were characterized for surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, structural integrity, In vitro mucoadhesion study and mucin adsorption ability. PLGA microspheres without surface modification demonstrated negative zeta potential, whereas Chitosan and its derivatives coated microspheres showed higher positive zeta potential. Results indicated that combination of TMC-CMC coated microspheres demonstrated substantially higher mucin adsorption and longer time of mucoadhesion when compared to chitosan and TMC coated microspheres and uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both uncoated and coated PLGA microspheres showed initial burst release followed by prolonged release pattern. The immuno-adjuvant ability of various formulations was determined on the basis of specific antibody titer observed in serum and secretions of mice. In vivo immunogenicity studies showed increased anti-HBsAg titer with TCC-CMC coated PLGA microspheres as compared to other coated and uncoated PLGA microspheres. To conclude, TCC-CMC coated PLGA microspheres could be a promising carrier targeted delivery for HBsAg in nasal mucosa.

    Mucoadhesive Microspheres of Anti-allergic Agent for Nasal Delivery

    By Jaideo Pandey, Pushpendra Kumar Tripathi*-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of research work was to develop and optimize mucoadhesive microspheres of anti-allergic agent (cetirizine) for nasal delivery with the aim to enhance the residence time and improve therapeutic efficacy and at the same time increase the local absorption of drug and reducing systemic side effects and also to develop unique delivery system for patients suffering from allergy and rhinitis. Mucoadhesive microspheres (Chitosan based) of cetirizine were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method in different ratio. Glutaraldehyde was used as crosslinking agent. The mean particle size was significantly increased when high concentration of chitosan was used. Aqueous to oil phase ratio, stirring rate and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) concentration also influenced the particle size distribution of the microspheres. Microspheres were evaluated with respect to the production yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling index, FT-IR, in vitro mucoadhesion, cumulative percentage drug release, histological study and stability studies. Formulation Cf3 was found to be optimized. The optimized formulation Cf3 was mucoadhesive in nature which adhere onto the mucus and increase the residence time within the nasal cavity.

    Patient Safety Culture In A Private Indian Dental Institute- A Pilot Study

    By Arun Singh Thakur*, Shashidhar Acharya, Deepak Singhal, Nivedita Rewal, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj-
    (566) (24)

    Context: Patient safety in dentistry is a critical dimension of healthcare. Dentistry cannot remain on sidelines on the issue of patient safety. Aims: The objective of this study was to describe the patient safety culture among faculty, students (postgraduates, undergraduates and interns) and dental assistants in a private Indian dental Institute. Settings and Design: A survey on patient safety culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was used to measure attitudes of faculty, students and dental assistants working in the clinics of a South Indian Dental Institute, towards the patient safety. Methods and Material: The questionnaire was distributed among faculty, students and dental assistants with printed instructions for completion. Statistical analysis used: SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Percentages of responses were calculated for each of the 12 dimensions for safety culture survey among the groups. Item total likert scores were calculated for each dimension. Results: 86% response rate was seen in this survey. ‘Overall Perceptions of safety’ was reported positive by 59% of the respondents. 75% of the respondents reported positive for the category of ‘adverse effects reporting’. ‘Supervisor expectation and actions promoting patient safety’ were reported positive by 65% of respondents. 64% respondents reported positively for ‘Organisational learning/continuous process’. ‘Team works within units’ were reported positive by 71% of individuals. ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were reported positive by 76% and 68% of individuals respectively. ‘Management support’ and ‘team work across units’ were reported positive by 64% and 60% respectively. Categories of ‘Non punitive response to errors’, ‘Staffing’ and ‘transition of patients’ were reported positive by only 26%, 37% and 44% of respondents.Significant differences were seen for age for the dimensions of Organisational learning/continuous process and staffing (p<0.03).Dimensions of ‘Teamwork within units’, ‘Communication openness’ and ‘Feedback and communication about errors’ were significantly higher among males. (p<0.01). Conclusions: Positive perception regarding patient safety was less amongst interns and undergraduate students as compared to the faculty.

    Forced Degradation Study for Assay Method of Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    By Kishor Kumar Koshe*, Umesh Maniyar, M. V. Katariya, Sushil Jaiswal, V. R. Katariya, G. S. Karva-
    (566) (24)

    As HPLC method is time consuming, very accurate and precise method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide from Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol dosage form by UPLC. Forced degradation study was performed on this method to establish the method is stability indicating. The liquid forced degradation and solid degradation study was carried out on Acquity UPLC @BEH C18, (100 mm x 2.1 mm), 1.7 µm column using the gradient composition of mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and acetonitrile in ratio of 96:4 v/v as mobile phase A and mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and acetonitrile in ratio of 45:55 v/v used as mobile phase B at flow rate 0.25 mL/min and detection wavelength 238 nm.

    Pre Clinical Toxicity Evaluation of Recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (Rh PEG-GCSF)

    By Arunkumar Choulam*, Swapna Basa, Ravikumar B., Prashanth R.-
    (566) (24)

    Recombinant protein technology produces drugs for human therapy in unprecedented quantity and quality. Pegfilgrastim is in a class of medications called colony stimulating factors. It works by helping the body make more neutrophils. The aim of the present study is to carry preclinical toxicity study on Acute toxicity and Skin sensitization study by using recombinant Pegylated Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in rats and mice-Acute toxicity study and Guine pigs – skin sensitization test. The objective is to assess the safety profile of rh PEG-GCSF in Swiss albino mice and Sprague Dawley rats and guinea pigs for the treatment of cancer based on the guidelines of EMEA & DBT. In the present study the preclinical toxicity study is carried by conducting Acute Toxicity Study & Guinea Pig Skin Maximisation Test. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group III (Intravenous) and Group IV (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. There was no mortality or morbidity observed during the 14 days study period. No toxic signs and abnormal behaviour was observed in the Group I (Intravenous) and Group II (subcutaneous) animals, which were exposed to the test compound at 10 times of intended therapeutic dose. On the basis of the results, interpreted according to GPMT Magnusson/Kligman and OECD TG 406, the skin sensitization test in guinea pigs, the substance “rh G-CSF” –pegfilgrastim must be considered as non sensitizer for skin.

    Validated High Performance liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Thiocolchicoside, and its Application to Ex-vivo Permeation Studies for Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

    By P. Gayatri*, M. Ajitha, P. Pavan Kumar, Y Madhusudan Rao-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, accurate and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for estimation of thiocolchicoside (THC) in skin permeated samples was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C 18 column (Inertsil ODS 3V C-18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ )using a mixture of Buffer: Methanol (45:55) as mobile phase. The flow rate was fixed at 1.5 mL/min. The linearity range for the proposed method was 0.25-50µg/mL. Photodiode array detector was set at a wavelength of 264nm to monitor the elution. The LOD and LOQ for thiocolchicoside were 0.05µg/mL and 0.125µg/mL respectively. The correlation coefficient (‘r’2) values were found to be >0.996 and % RSD values for intra-day and inter-day were found to be less than 10%. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ as per ICH guidelines and was suitable for estimation of thiocolchicoside in ex-vivo skin diffusate samples and transdermal patches.

    Development And In vitro Evaluation of PLGA Microsphere of Docetaxel

    By Arpan Kumar Tripathi*, Ashwani Patel, Rakesh Sahu, Pankaj Kashyap, Dusmanta Kumar Pradhan-
    (566) (24)

    Breast-targeting docetaxel loaded (polylactic-co-glycolic) acid microsphere were prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The uniform design was used to optimize the technology of preparation, the appreance and size distribution were examined by scanning electron microscope, and the aspect such as in vitro release characteristics, stability drug loading efficiency. The experimental result show that the microspheres were globular in appearance and disperse well the average particle size decrease form is 24.49±0.38.49 micro-meter to 4.99+ 0.11micrometer. The drug loading efficiency decrease75.01±1.2% to81.2±1.9% respectively. The in vitro release behaviour could be expressed by the drug release rate decrese from 90% to 84% with increasing amount of PLGA during preparation. The drug release rate increase from 81% to 98% with the increase in stirring rate from 200to800 RPM. Stability studies were carried out with selected formulation period of 45-Daysmicrospheres was found to increase slightly.

    Expression of IGF-2 Receptor In Salivary Gland Tumors and Its Correlation with Tumor Relapse

    By Emamverdizadeh P, Vosough Hosseini S, Farnia S*, Shokouhi Gavgani B, Dehghan Manshadi V, Lotfi R.-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Pleomorphic Adenoma (PA) is one of the most common benign salivary gland neoplasms, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are the most common malignant salivary gland tumors (SGT). The expression of insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGF-R) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of different neoplasms. Since there is a lack of sufficient data on the importance of IGF-R in the pathogenesis of SGTs, the present study aimed at evaluating the IGF-2R expression and its correlation with tumor relapse in three common SGT diseases. Methods: In a laboratory study, 44 paraffin-embedded specimens (15 in PA, 14 in MEC, and 15 in ACC groups) were studied. The samples were stained for IGF-2R using polyclonal antibody. The expression of IGF-2 receptor was studied by two pathologists, and the patients were observed for any evidence of relapse. Data analysis was done by SPSS 18, and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of the 44 enrolled patients, 25 (56.8%) were male. The meanSD age was 38.813.72, 47.0714.95, and 51.2614.31 years in the PA, MEC, and ACC groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the positive cells for IGF-2R between the three groups, whereas the difference for staining intensity and calculated scale was found to be statistically significant (p=0.02, p=0.04, respectively). Tumor relapse was reported to be higher in ACC compared to the MEC and PA groups (p<0.01). The relationship among staining intensity, calculated scale, and the tumor relapse was statistically remarkable (p=0.02). Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded that the relapse rate of tumors is related to IGF-2R expression in tumor cells. The relapse rate was higher and the expression of IGF-2R was lower in ACC when compared to the PA and MEC types of SGTs.

    Antimicrobial Activity of Aloe Vera Formulation

    By Archana A. Bele*, Anubha Khale-
    (566) (24)

    With the increasing incidence of diseases and development of antibiotic resistance, the alternative, safe, effective, and economical products are the need of time. Proven in multiple clinical studies, Aloe vera has been used in antimicrobial activity and used in mouth ulcers, periodontal diseases etc. In this present study Mucoadhesive film was prepared to study antimicrobial activity, to improve therapeutic efficacy by its adhesive action. The present study discusses the estimation of the antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera loaded mucoadhesive films. The formulation was studied for percent inhibition of microorganism of inflammed tissue, Calculas, and cultures of S.oralis, C.albicans, S.mutans. The formulation showed Percent inhibition of Candida albicans more when compared with standard Chlorhexidine. The film prepared is economic, convenient and shows the antimicrobial activity.

    Development and Validation RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture

    By Pankti M. Shah*, Jignesh S. Shah, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, specific and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture. The using Phenomenex Luna C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column in Isocratic mode, with Mobile Phase containing Methanol: Water: ACN (pH 3.7 adjusted with 10% Ortho Phosphoric Acid) (70:25:05 %v/v/v). The Flow Rate was 1 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 233 nm. The Retention Time of Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 8.003 min and 5.290 min respectively. The Linearity for Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 4-20 µg/ml and 1.5-7.5 µg/ml respectively. The Recoveries of Valsartan and Nifedipine were found to be 99.50% – 100.15% and 99.33% – 100.40% respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Valsartan and Nifedipine in Synthetic Mixture.

    Evaluation of Sustainability of An Outreach Dental Centre: A Refined Break Even Analysis

    By Bhumika Rathore, Pushpanjali Krishnappa, Suvarna Veeranna Biradar, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj-
    (566) (24)

    Introduction – Outreach centres provide dental services at subsidised rates in urban and rural areas but sustainability of these centres remains a question. Methodology- Functional Outreach rural centre of a private institution providing oral health care services was selected for the study. Retrospective fiscal data was collected for past financial year. Cost analysis was done using a contribution method. Results- Break even existed with some amount generated as a marginal benefit. Conclusion – Unit was found to be self-sustainable and generated some extra income which would help in the revision of the policy regarding the patients being treated for free in the outreach rural centre.

    Development and Validation RP-HPLC Method For Simultaneous Estimation of Cefuroxime Axetil and Linezolid In Combined Dosage Form

    By Kinjal A. Patel*, Jignesh S. Shah, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, specific and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Cefuroxime Axetil and Linezolid in combined dosage form. The using Kromasil C-8 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column in Isocratic mode, with Mobile Phase Acetonitrile : Phosphate buffer, pH=4.0 (60:40 % v/v) (pH 4.0 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid). The Flow Rate was 0.9 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 268 nm. The Retention Time of were found to be Linezolid and Cefuroxime Axetil 6.860 min and 8.840 min respectively. The Linearity for Cefuroxime Axetil and Linezolid were found to be 2.5-12.5 µg/ml and 3-15 µg/ml respectively. The Recoveries of Cefuroxime Axetil and Linezolid were found to be 101.66 – 101.90% and 98.14 - 101.15 % respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Cefuroxime Axetil and Linezolid in combined dosage form.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Multi-particulate Drug Delivery System of Pepsin Enzyme

    By S.T.Bembalkar*, S. V. Shirolkar, D.P.Joshi-
    (566) (24)

    The aim is to develop multi-particulate drug delivery system for pepsin. Multi-particulate systems offer advantage with respect to predictable and even distribution and transportation through GI track. Multi-particulate system can be prepared by various techniques such as agitation, Powder layering, solution layering. In this study, multi-particulate systems of pepsin have been attempted using Lactose and Guar gum as principal excipients. Suitable dough of pepsin with excipients was prepared and pass through sieve # 8.The extrudets were spheronised using spheronizer. Factorial design was applied using speed (RPM) and time for spheronisation as independent variables at three levels. Formulations were evaluated for particle size, % yield, % entrapment efficiency, Disintegration time and In vitro drug release. Relationship between dependent and independent variables was established using design expert 7.0.0.

    Development and Validation of UV Spectrometric and HPLC Method for Estimation of Escitalopram Oxalate and Flupentixol Dihydrochloride in Combined Dosage Form

    By Shivani C. Patel*, Dilip G. Maheshwari-
    (566) (24)

    Reverse phase High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Escitalopram oxalate and Flupentixol dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to ICH Q2R1 guidelines. The RP-HPLC method was developed by the isocratic technique on a column of Kromasil C8 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm). The retention time for ESC and Flu was 3.6 min and 5.8 min respectively. The UV spectrophotometric determinations were performed at the zero crossing point (ZCP) of ESP was found to be 238 nm and ZCP of Flu was found to be 229 nm. The linearity of the calibration curves for each analyte in the desired concentration range was good (r2 > 0.999) by both the HPLC and UV methods. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. Moreover, UV spectroscopy can be a cheap, reliable and less time consuming alternative for chromatographic analysis. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise and accurate and hence successfully applied for determining the assay of a Combined dosage form.

    In-Vitro Antilithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Codiaeum Variegatum (L.) Blume

    By Urmilesh Jha*, Anoop Singh, Rajesh J Oswal-
    (566) (24)

    Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Codiaeum Variegatum (L.) Blume by in-vitro method. Methods: The ethanolic extract was evaluated for its antilithiatic activity by preparing synthetic urine. The crystal size development was monitored in sample drops every five minutes by polarized microscope. The experiments were carried in absence of plant extract and in presence of 25, 50, 75, and 100% of ethanolic extracts. Result: In the presence of plants extracts, the length and the width of the crystals were reduced. The average length of the crystals grown in the presence of the inhibitors was less than that of the control sample. Conclusion: In-vitro study shows that the ethanolic extract posses antilithiatic activity and further in vivo study is required to confirm its mechanism of action.

    Formulation Development and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Tablets of Telmisartan by Solid Dispersion Technology

    By Ganesh R. Godge* Varsha D. Palwe, Pratap Y. Pawar -
    (566) (24)

    In the present work ,an attempt was made to formulate sustained release tablets of Telmisartan by solid dispersion technique for improving solubility Telmisartan using PEG 4000 and PVP K30.The Telmisartan tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using HPMC K4M as sustained release polymer in different concentrations .The prepared tablets were evaluated for various physiochemical parameters, In vitro Drug release study was carried out in phosphate Buffer PH 6.8using USP TYPE II paddle apparatus. Increase in HPMC concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in Telmisartan release .tablets containing 75 mg of HPMC K4M (f1and f4) shows 78% and 70% drug release upto 9 hr. Tablet containing 90 mg of HPMC K4M (f2and f5) shows 80 % and 81%drug release upto 9 hr. and tablet containing 105 mg HPMC K 4M (f3 and f6)shows highest drug release 91%and83% compared to other formulations. the in vitro data is fitted in to different kinetic models like zero order ,first order, korsmeyer and matrix plot. From this study, it was clarified that solid dispersion technique was one of the promising sustained release system applying for the poorly water soluble drugs.

    Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some 2- Substituted Amino Benzothiazole Derivatives

    By Shinde N.C., Pawar P.Y.-
    (566) (24)

    A series of 2- amino substituted (3a-3g) were synthesized by treating with ammonium thiocynate in the presence of Conc. HCl with different substituted anilines.Structures of all the synthesized compounds were established on melting point, TLC, IR,1H NMR spectral data. In the present study 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were prepared from the substituted anilines, in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate and the titled compounds were evaluated for Antibacterial Activity .

    Analgesic Efficacy of Morphine Versus Concurrent Use of Ketorolac and Acetaminophen In Mandibular Bone Surgery

    By Ali Hossein Mesgarzadeh, Vahid Dehghan Manshadi,*, Javad Yazdani1, Kourosh Taheri Talesh, Samira Farnia-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Pain, a major issue in medical treatment, is one of the major concerns for both the clinician and the patient. Postoperative acute pain management during the initial hours is very important and can prevent side effects. Analgesics (acetaminophen, opioids) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as medications for pain control. Objective: This study was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy of morphine versus the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen after mandibular bone surgery. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, single-centered, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, a total of 60 patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital in 2015 for mandibular bone surgery were randomized post-surgery into two groups: In group 1, acetaminophen (1 g in 100 cc normal saline solution) and ketorolac (30 mg in 100 cc normal saline solution) were infused every 6 hours. In group 2, morphine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg in 100 cc normal saline solution) was infused every 4 hours. The pain level was recorded on the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups in most hours. The mean pain level according to the VAS in group 1 and group 2 were 6.87±2.43 vs.7.20±2.06 (p = 0.560) for the 1st hour post operation, 5.80±2.76 vs. 4.03±2.25 (p = 0.008) for the 2nd hour post operation, 5.03±3.01 vs. 3.10±2.11 (p = 0.005) for the 4th hour post operation, 3.37±3.03 vs. 1.77±1.92 (p = 0.017) for the 6th hour post operation, 2.10±2.44 vs. 0.73±1.28 (p = 0.008) for the 12th hour post operation and 1.30±1.91 vs. 0.60±1.28 (p = 0.101) for the 24th hour post operation. No significant difference was observed in the 1st and 24th hour post-operation. Nausea was seen in the groups as one of the side effects with no significant difference. Conclusion: Morphine showed better efficiency in pain control than the concurrent use of ketorolac and intravenous acetaminophen.

    A Study on The Nitric Oxide (NO) Enhancing Ability of A Natural Phytochemical Formulation

    By Sreeraj Gopi*, Karthik Varma, Shintu Jude, Mallikarjunb, Divya-
    (566) (24)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide (NO) has basically dual action in biological systems. Nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the vasodilation process. As a result of the vasodilation, the blood flow to the body tissues will be increased, there by influencing the biological actions of the human body. There are many naturally derived phytochemicals which are helpful in the synthesis of nitric oxide. This study report explains the Nitric oxide stimulation activity of a combination of naturally derived phytochemicals.

    Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of 1-(5-Hydroxypentyloxy) Propan-2-One from Ethanolic Rhizome Extract of Kaempferia galanga

    By Narasinga Rao V, Dowluru Svgk Kaladhar,* Sreenu Barla-
    (566) (24)

    Plants contain several phytocompounds that shows interaction with various proteins involved in diseases. An isolation and characterization of a phytocompound from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga was conducted. Characterization of a novel compound was done using UV, proton, 13C, mass and IR spectra’s. K. galanga contains a novel phytocompound 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one identified based on spectra’s. Various biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, protease inhibition and anti-proliferation activities were tested for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one. The antioxidant activities with IC50 for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one was shown 44.5 µg/ml and IC50 for standard (Ascorbic acid) was shown as 24.5µg/ml. The 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one were shown good antifungal activities (9 to 12 mm) along with antibacterial activities (10 to 12 mm). The standard antibiotic like Tetracyclin shown zone of inhibition as 10 to 14mm for tested bacteria and for fungi standard as Fluconazole shown zone of inhibition from 13 to 16 mm. The protease inhibition studies for 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one of K. galanga have shown the good inhibition activity with enzymes like protease K and trypsin. The dose response of 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from K. galanga on MCF-7 (Breast Cancer) cell line shown very less activity 130 µgm/ml when compared with the standard tamoxifen 12.5 µgm/ml. Hence the experimentations concluded that a phytocompound, 1-(5-hydroxypentyloxy) propan-2-one from ethanolic rhizome extract of K. galanga shown biological activities.

    Antiparkinsonian Drug Utilization Pattern and ADR Monitoring In a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Hospital Based Observational Study

    By Monalisa Jena, Subhransu Sekhar Jena, Swati Mishra, Subrat Kumar Tripathy, Iswar Chandra Behera-
    (566) (24)

    Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder represented by tetrad of symptoms such as bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and gait disturbances. It results from the degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra in midbrain. This study was done to determine the prescribing pattern of antiparkinsonian drugs and associated adverse drug reactions in patients. Materials & methods: Data was collected from the case sheets in retrospective manner from Department of neurology of IMS & SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, India. The demographic profile, disease duration, symptoms, categories of drug, adverse drug reaction if any were noted and analyzed. Results: Male predominance was seen. A majority of patients were between 51 and 80 years and most of the patients had onset of disease between 51 and 80 years. The common presenting symptoms were rigidity, tremor and bradykinesia. The commonest category of drug prescribed was levodopa either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. Levodopa induced dyskinesia was the most common adverse drug reaction. The number of adverse drug reactions was significantly higher among patients receiving combination therapy. Conclusion: This study enlightens our knowledge regarding the utilization profile of antiparkinsonian drugs and related adverse drug reactions.

    Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Film of an Antihypertensive Drug

    By Bhagat B.V.*, Hapse S. A., Darkunde S. L., Autade Y. P. -
    (566) (24)

    Hypertension is a major cause of concern not just in the elderly but also in the youngsters. An effort was made to formulate a fast dissolving film(FDF) containing Indipamide which is used in the treatment of hypertension with a view to improve the onset of action, therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and convenience. The major challenge in formulation of oral films of Indipamide is that it shows very less solubility in the pH range of 3–9. Various film forming agents and polyhydric alcohols were evaluated for optimizing composition of fast dissolving films. Fast dissolving films were formulated using solvent casting method. Optimized formulations were evaluated for their weight, thickness, folding endurance, appearance, tensile strength, and disintegration time and dissolution profile.

    Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets of Lansoprazole

    By Geeta P. Darekar*, Dr. M. A. Saleem,Vidula P Mhaisekar, B. J. Pawar, Swapneel H. Bagal-
    (566) (24)

    The purpose of the present research work was to prepare & evaluate the ODT of Lansoprazole using Indion-414 & Indion-234 by Direct Compression method. Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) which is used in the management of acid-related disorders. Primarily powder blend (Drug & Excipients) was evaluated for precompression parameters and further tablet was compressed by direct compression method. Then the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, disintegration time, hardness, friability, drug content, water absorption ratio, wetting time, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. All the formulations showed low weight variation & from that F5 batch of Lansoprazole containing Indion- 234 (3% w/w) have less DT (12 sec), wetting time 18 sec % Drug release in 60 sec is 83% as compared to Indion-414 Dt Time was 17 sec. This work help in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables especially the resin which is used as a tablet disintegrant & the cost of resin is less as compared to conventional superdisintegrants. Also it gives rapid absorption, improved bioavailability, effective therapy and patient compliance.

    Association Between Tooth Brushing Behaviours And Dental Abrasions Among Residents of A Tribal District in Himachal Pradesh – A Cross Sectional Study

    By Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj*, Sunil Kumar Abbot, Nishant Negi-
    (566) (24)

    Aim: To determine an association between tooth brushing behaviours and dental abrasions among residents of a tribal district in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 550 adults (350 male and 200 female) aged 20 years and above who attended the Regional hospital at Reckongpeo in Tribal district of Kinnaur in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Study format comprises of patient demographic details and information on brushing behaviours. “P" value ≤0.05 was taken as statistically significant whereas ≤ 0.01 was considered as statistically highly significant. Results: In this study statistically significant relationship was observed between abrasive lesions and majority of the factors related to the tooth brushing behaviours. Statistically significant difference was found between abrasions and age wise and gender wise comparison, tooth brushing frequency, changing habits of toothbrushes on fraying of toothbrush bristles. Whereas the association between prevailing dental abrasions and technique and strokes used during tooth brushing was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Keeping in mind an association and impact of brushing behaviour and abrasions dental professionals should make evidence-based recommendations to their patients and general masses. There is a need of demonstration of proper tooth brushing techniques to this group of population and education to modify their brushing behaviours for a sound dental health.

    Monitoring of Oxidative Stress in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    By Chandra Kishore Prasad*, Jyotish Chandra Pandey-
    (566) (24)

    The close association between oxidative stress and lifestyle-related diseases has become well known. Chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages is a primary cause of liver injury. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A study was carried out in 30 cirrhotic patients with chronic alcoholism of 30-55 years of age. The blood samples were collected for the estimation of the biochemical factors. The serum obtained from samples was subjected to estimation of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Gamma Glutamyl transferase. The level of the ALT, AST, MDA & GGT were significantly found increased in alcoholic liver diseases patients when compared to normal patients. This concludes that increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant defence system in alcoholic liver diseases patients.

    Study of Liver Function Test in Tuberculosis Treatment

    By Jyotish Chandra Pandey*, Chandra Kishore Prasad-
    (566) (24)

    Tuberculosis is major problem in India. In India about 1.96 millions of the new cases were reported annually. About 3.8 million of the new cases showed prevalence of the tuberculosis. Antituberculosis treatment is the common cause of drug induced liver injuries or hepatotoxicity in the patients. It has been proved in many studies that the effect occure due the elevated level of the liver enzymes like ALT, AST, ALP. The study was conducted on the patients of DOTs centres in the North India. About 50 patients were selected. The blood samples were collected from the patients and the liver markes were studied before and after drug therapy. The levels of the Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartame transaminase, Bilirubin & Plasma albumin were increased significantly after the drug administration. The study concludes that side effects in the patients with anti-tuberculosis drugs shall be monitored regularly.

    Winogradsky column and Microbial Metabolic Network Analysis

    By Santosh Kumari Duppala*, DSVGK Kaladhar-
    (566) (24)

    The Winogradsky column is mainly constructed to know that how the microbial diversity and ecological relationship between the microorganisms exit in their natural environment. In the present review, by using Winogradsky column the microbial metabolism and its network analysis is investigated. Prokaryotes and Archaea bacteria show great metabolic diversity and these microorganisms keeps our biological world continuous recycling. Different types of organisms are detected in this present study; Winogradsky column forms three layers according to their energy and light requirement. On the top layer majority of the microbes in the water layer were photoautotrophic organisms like cyanobacteria, Algae, and many sheathed bacteria and chemoautotrophs such as Beggiatoa and Thiobacillus sulfur oxidizing bacteria are dominant on surface but the ratio decreases as in the lower layers .Further, the next gradient promote aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria are more in number in the higher or middle layer of the column when compared to bottom –green and purple sulfur phototrophic bacteria like Rhodhospirilum, Rhodhomicrobium, Rhodhopseudomonas and anaerobic Chlorobium are found in the microbial population. In the oxygen depleted zone or bottom layer anaerobic chemoheterotrophic or sulphur reducing bacteria are found more dominant such as Desulfovibrio and clostridium are mostly found. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA v7 Software.

    Investigation of Antiangiogenic Activity of Cassia Fistula Extract In Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

    By Arunkumar Choulam, Ravi Kumar Bothala, Prashanth R-
    (566) (24)

    Plant which harbors curative elements or properties in one or more of its parts may be termed has medicinal plant. Plant based medicaments have been employed since the dawn of civilization for prolonging the life of man for combating against various body ailments. So medicinal plants like Cassia Fistula have their different pharmacological activities so they are cultivating in many places of India. Cassia fistula has been reported to have different pharmacological effects like Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial Activity, Antihelminthic Activity along with these effects it also has Antiangiogenic effect. Which used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Cassia fistula by determining its Antiangiogenic effect in chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Cassia fistula was evaluated for antiangiogenic activity by chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM assay). Antiangiogenic effect was assessed using Cassia fistula induced hypotensive rat. Antiangiogenic effect was evaluated in hypotensive rat, in comparison to control group with the standard (salicylic acid) and test (Cassia fistula) group showed significant activity. Antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in CAM assay, in comparison to control group with the test group showed significant activity of less angiogenesis. From the present study it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula shown Antiangiogenic activity.

    Rationale Drug Use In Two Hospitals In Khartoum State Is There A Role For Clinical Pharmacists

    By Sahar Mamoun Mohamed Ali Homeida*, Hassan Mohamed Ali Hussein, Esra Nour Aldeen Yamani-
    (566) (24)

    This is a prospective, observational hospital study set out to assess the need for a clinical pharmacist within the hospital. The study was conducted in two hospitals in Khartoum state, Hospital 1 and Hospital 2 during a period of 30 days. The data collected was questionnaire based from all patients attending the Medicine and Paediatric ward (n=140) in the two hospitals, consultants (n=3), registrars (n=3), housemen (n=35) and nurses (n=30). The data was analysed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) computer programme. The investigation examined the major drug use aspects with particular emphasis on the components of drug supply, storage, prescribing, dispensing and treatment monitoring. The overall results from the two hospitals were fairly in good agreement that have warranted justifiably the grounds to reach the following findings; • The main prescribers of drugs in hospitals are the housemen doctors • Lack of adequate awareness of doctors of what drugs their patients are taking or currently using. (As indicated by the discrepancy between the number on record sheet and that directly observation). • All aspects of drug use are handled by co patients. • Advice on dosage regimen aspects as well as side effects to patients was often lacking. This finding are very much indicative of the need to ensure rational medication use in its broad meaning, and area well within the role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist as judged by today’s globally established definition of clinical pharmacy ‘ the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use’.

    Method Development and Validation of Milnacipran by using RP-HPLC Method

    By Palleppagari Sridhar*, K. Venkateswar Rao, C. Radhika, A. Sujitha, V. Uma Maheswara Rao-
    (566) (24)

    A rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the validated of Milnacipran, in its pure form as well as in capsule dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on a phenomanix C18 (4.6 x 250mm, 5µm) column using a mixture of Acetonitrile: Triethylamine buffer pH 4.5(65:35% v/v)as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min, the detection was carried out at 215 nm. The retention time of the Milnacipran was 2.16 min respectively. The method produce linear responses in the concentration range 5-25 mg/ml of Milnacipran. The method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0% RSD. The method is useful in the analysis of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations of Millancipran.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Psidium Guajava Linn Leaves Extract

    By Prashant P. Bhalchim*, Manjusha N. Dole-
    (566) (24)

    Objective- In the present study an attempt was made to formulate gel containing Psidium guajava linn extracts and was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different microorganism. Method- The plant were collected and extracted with suitable solvent. Different gels were formulated by using different concentration of extracts. The evaluation was done using Agar well diffusion method. The gel formulation was designed by using Carbopol 940, Psidium guajava linn extract, Propylene glycol 400, Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben and required amount of distilled water. Then skin pH (6.8-7) was maintained by drop wise addition of tri-ethanolamine. Result- The physiochemical parameters of formulations (pH, viscosity, spreadability etc.) were determined. The herbal gel showed that formulation containing Psidium guajava linn extract have better Antimicrobial activity. Conclusion- Our literature survey revealed that the herbal gel of leaves extract from leaves of Psidium guajava linn was not investigated in the present study.

    Preparation and Evaluation of Myoconductive ECG Gel

    By Alli Pooja R.*, Bargaje Pratima D.*,Mhaske Nilesh S.-
    (566) (24)

    Hydrogel formulation provides better application property and stability. Hydrogels are the swellable polymeric materials, have been widely investigated as the carrier for drug delivery systems. The hydrogel can be defined as a cross-linked polymeric network which has the capacity to hold water within its porous structure. Conductive gel used in electrocardiography. The electrode gel greatly affects the signals from the skin to electrode. Hydrogel should be greaseless, odourless and non-staining. In addition to getting information about cardiac status, respiratory rate monitoring and ventilator triggering are possible from ECG gel. The gel can be easily removed after use. Hydrogels are the semi-rigid systems in which the movement of the dispersing medium is restricted by an interlacing three-dimensional network of particles or solvated macro-molecules in the dispersed phase. Physical and /or chemical cross-linking may be involved. The interlacing and consequential internal friction is responsible for increased viscosity and the semisolid state. Gels are evaluated by following parameters such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, skin irritation studies, sound speed, electric impendence, sound attenuation , sound impendence frequency.

    Study of Neusiln UFL2 and β-Cyclodexrtin as Solid Carriers in Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Atorvastatin Calcium Prepared by Spray Drying

    By Bharat V. Jadhav*, Vikas B. Gawali, Sandip G. Badadhe, Mahesh D. Bhalsing-
    (566) (24)

    The main objectives of this work was, to study the effect of β-cyclodextrin and Neusilin UFL2 as a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic solid carrier respectively in solidification of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system prepared by spray drying technique. The liquid SMEDDS consisted of poorly water-soluble drug Atorvastatin calcium (10mg), and Capmul MCM (200mg) and Tween 20 (800mg) as oil and surfactant respectively. This formulation was spray dried by using the solid carrier in various formulations to carrier ratio. These spray dried formulation were characterized for flow properties, drug content, reconstitution and solid state properties. In-vitro dissolution test was carried out to observe the effect of solidification on release of drug and compare it with liquid SMEDDS and marketed formulation. The liquid SMEDDS to solid carrier ratio of 1:0.5 showed passable flow properties and high drug content. DSC, PXRD revealed that the drug in the solid SMEDDS was disperse in amorphous form while SEM results indicated that the particle formed were spherical with liquid formulation loading. In-vitro drug dissolution study indicated that after solidification the drug release was enhanced as compared to plain drug and marketed formulation. After three month stability study solid SMEDDS did not show any drug precipitation as well as phase separation. Thus it can be concluded that the solidification of liquid SMEDDS using these carrier retain the original performance with enhance stability.

    Sachet Formulation of Taste Masked Antibiotic Drug For Pediatrics Use

    By Shubhangi V. Shekade*, S. V. Shirolkar, S. S. Poddar, Vasant Shetty-
    (566) (24)

    The major problem of bitter drug is to restrict greatly the further development of oral preparations and clinical application of these drugs. The current study was aimed to prepare taste masked granules by using fluidized bed processor (Miniquest F). In this study ciprofloxacin HCl along with HPMC (6cps), Aspartame (6%) and flavour (0.6%) was granulated and passed through sieve no.30# to get optimized size of granules. The key variables were identified as spray rate, inlet temp, atomization air pressure & air flow in fluidized bed processor to obtain required size of granules. Air flow range for the process was decided on the basis of fluidization of API (0.7-0.9 bar) used. Ciprofloxacin being a poorly fluidized drug air flow was kept at 0.7-0.9 bar. The obtained granules were coated with different taste masking polymers vizEudragit EPO (70%) &Eudragit L100 (40%&30%). Complete taste masking was observed with Eudragit L100 (40%). The coated granules were then evaluated for its micromeritic properties, taste masking &in-vitro dissolution. The coated ciprofloxacin granules were filled in a sachet manually along with other excipients to make a unit dose weight of 1 gm.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Film Coated Tablet of Rosuvastatin

    By Dhruv Prakash Tiwari*, Manoj kumar Mishra-
    (566) (24)

    Rosuvastatin is an antilipidemic agent that competitively inhibits hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Hypo-lipidemic is a disorder of cholesterol level in a liver. Thus formulating Rosuvastatin into a flim coated dosage form would provide fast relief. The tablets were evaluated for the drug content, weight variation, water absorption ratio, wetting time, in vitro disintegration, hardness, friability, thickness uniformity. The tablets disintegrated in vitro within 37 to 40 seconds complete drug were released from tablet within 30 minutes. The results showed that Rosuvastatin Calcium was successfully formulated into a flim coated dosage form.

    Hospital Acquired Infections in Different Wards of Patna Medical College & Hospital

    By Md. Ishtiaque Ahmad*, Shankar Prakash-
    (566) (24)

    Nosocomial infection - also called “hospital acquired infection” this includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility. The most common types of Nosocomial infections that could occur in a hospital are surgical wound and other soft tissue infections, Urinary tract infections, Respiratory infections, Gastroenteritis, Meningitis. Naturally this work was undertaken with a view to study the problems of postoperative sepsis and other types of infection during hospitalization period and to express more knowledge over this subject. The samples of Pus, Urine, Sputum and Swab Samples from the different parts of the hospitals were collected. These were then cultured into the different media. After the specific duration the cultural and morphological characters were noted. The organism were identified on the basis of characters of the colony, Gram staining, Motility test, Biochemical reactions & coagulase tests. In Burn wound infection it was observed that most sensitive antibiotics against all above mention organism were Piperacillin, Gentamysin, Amikacin. In Noscomial urinary tract infection E. coli was the most common microorganism isolated and showed most sensitivity to Ceftazidime. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated from surgical wards and it was most sensitive with the Cefotaxime. From respiratory tract infection most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus and most sensitive antibiotics was Imipenem.

    Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Determination of Potential Degradation Impurities of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    By U. R. Maniyar*, , K. Koshe M. V. Katariya, G. S. Karva, V. R. Katariya, Sushil Jaiswal-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, very accurate and precise stability indicating RP-HPLC gradient was developed to determine related substances of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil from tablet dosage form. The experiment was carried out on Zorbax SB-Phenyl, (250 mm X 4.6 mm), 5 µm column using the gradient composition of buffer pH 3.7 as mobile phase A and mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran (50: 50: 2 v/v/v), degas as mobile phase B at flow rate 1.2ml/min and detection wavelength 265 nm The new proposed method was simple, accurate, precise, linear and rugged. Method was validated as per ICH guidelines1, 2, 3, 4 for simultaneous determination related substances of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil in tablet dosage form hence can be used for routine analysis.

    Assessment of Gastric Amyloidosis in Patient with Abdominal Distension using Endoscopic Ultrasound

    By Gaurav Pandey*, Supriya Sharma-
    (566) (24)

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease caused by extracellular deposits of insoluble fibrillar proteins in various organs and tissues. There are different forms of amyloidosis distinguished by the type of protein fibrils, by the sites of deposition and by associated conditions. Gastrointestinal involvement is common both in primary and secondary amyloidosis, while isolated gastrointestinal amyloidosis is rare. In this study the patient was referred for the treatment having abdominal distension. The pathology showed chronic mild-moderate inflammation of the gastric body mucosa associated with interstitial amyloidosis, with accompanying Helicobacter pylori infection. The treatment was given for the mentioned symptoms. But after the pathological investigation & Endoscopic Ultrasound study it had confirmed that the patient was having Amyloidosis. In the Endoscopic Ultrasound observation of gastric mucosa and thickening of sub mucosa was seen. Along with disappearance of normal levels and low echo in gastric amyloidosis.

    Outcome of Liver Transplantation in Indian Patients

    By Supriya Sharma*, Gaurav Pandey-
    (566) (24)

    The liver is self-regenerative organ. Liver can regenerate in weeks or month to its original volume. Even a large part of liver can be removed from donor then remaining part of liver is sufficient to perform the metabolic need of the patients. Therefore, a healthy person can donate part of his/her liver for LT. In India many children’s need the Liver transplant were referred are very late stage. After that also the socio economic condition and lack of donor are the two important factors in the transplantation. The study had aim to focus on the background of liver transplant in India. Also the critical observation after the liver transplantation is reported. The observation of the children’s liver transplant observed are the bile leak, acute rejection, venos thrombosis, hypertension and bacterial sepsis.

    Study of Sociodemographic and Morbidity Pattern among Geriatric Population

    By Dr. Udaykiran Bhalge *, Dr D.S.Deo,Dr V.L.Vedpathak, Dr P.L.Dahire, Dr Prema Joshi-
    (566) (24)

    Background: This study was carried out to know the sociodemographic and morbidity pattern of geriatric population .As there is increase in the proportion of aged population, there would be increase in the burden of chronic diseases and disabilities in older age group. Thus it was decided to do a cross-sectional study of the geriatric morbidity in a rural population. Method: The detailed information of geriatric population regarding study variables like age, sex, occupation, education and morbidity pattern collected. Predesigned and pretested proforma was used to collect data. Data was analyzed by using suitable statistical method. Result: Among 100 elderly, 56% were men and 44% were women. 41% belonged to age group 61-65yrs. 85% are agricultural workers. Nearly half of them were illiterate. A majority of them had health problems. Most common health problem which were found were arthritis 58%, cataract 42%, URTI and other respiratory problems 36%. Conclusion: It is necessary to put attention over health of geriatric population by community participation.

    Formulation and Evaluation of BuccalFilms of Ranitidine Hydrochloride

    By Harish Goyal*, Sameer Rastogi, Vandana Arora, Vijay Bhalla-
    (566) (24)

    Buccal drug delivery system is been considered as a potential non invasive route of drug administration with several advantages viz prolonged therapeutic effect dose reduction improved bioavailability lesser side effects than conventional dosage forms etc. The present investigation involves formulation evaluation and comparison of formulated polymeric buccal patches using ranitidine HCL as model drug the formulations were prepared by solvent evaporation / casting method. The prepared buccal patches were evaluated for thickness, drug content uniformity, weight variation, folding endurance, swelling index, surface pH, surface morphology, in-vitro & ex-vitro drug release.In-vitro release studies were performed across cellophane membrane using Franz Diffusion Cell (FDC). The surface morphology of the patch was examined by Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the physicochemical and in-vitro release study, formulation F3, F4 and F5 were chosen for further ex-vivo release studied. Ex- vivo permeation studied were carried out through buccal mucosa of pig using FDC. Drug release data were fitted to various pharmacokinetic model equations such as zero order kinetics, first order kinetics, Higuchi’s and korsmeyerPeppas model in order to find out mechanism of drug release.

    Biomarkers In Alcoholic Liver Disease

    By Supriya Sharma*, Gaurav Pandey-
    (566) (24)

    Extreme alcohol ingesting is a major health problem in the universal leading to both severe morbidity and mortality. Prolonged and undue alcohol ingestion is one of the major causes of Liver diseases. Alcohol is considered as a direct hepatotoxin. Progressive firosis and cirrhosis, clinically presenting as end-stage liver disease are common outcomes in alcoholic Liver disease patients. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel biomarkers for progression of cirrhosis to end-stage liver cirrhosis. The different subjects were evaluated based in the age group. Blood samples were analysed for the analysis of different enzymatic levels. The urea, creatinine, albumin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are observed for the any rise or decline in it. The alcohol is responsible for abnormal haematological, renal and liver chemistries.

    A Study On Lipid Profiles In Chronic Liver Diseases

    By Gaurav Pandey*, Supriya Sharma-
    (566) (24)

    In chronic liver disease decreased biosynthetic capacity of liver is observed hence unusually low levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are found. So the study was designed to observe the lipid profiles in the chronic liver diseases patients. The aim of the study is to find changes in lipid profile and metabolism within the patients suffering from chronic liver diseases. The patients admitted to hospitals and diagnosed with the chronic liver diseased were selected for the study. The study found that the there is changes in the lipid levels in the chronic liver diseases. Dyslipidaemia is the common finding in this type of conditions. It helps in diagnosis of severity of liver disease and also acts as a good predictive indication. The screening for the same is important for intervention with appropriate therapy to prevent cardiovascular events.

    Antimicrobial Activity of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium roseum) Essential Oil on Bacteria of Veterinary Clinical Origin

    By Bhoj R Singh*, Ravi Kant Agrawal, Sakshi Dubey, Monika Bhardwaj, Prasanna Vadhana-
    (566) (24)

    In the study on antimicrobial activity of rose geranium oil (GEO), 167 bacterial strains belonging to 22 genera and 49 species were tested. In total only seven strains were sensitive to GEO. Out of 15 reference strains included in the study only one (Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522) and six of the 120 isolates from clinically sick animals were found sensitive. None of the 26 isolates from environment (soil, water and air) and six from healthy animals was sensitive to GEO. All resistant strains (160) had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) more than 2µL of GEO / mL of medium. Sensitive strains’ GEO MIC ranged between 0.2 µL/ mL to 2µL/ mL. The minimum MIC was for Pasteurella langaensis (0.2 µL/ mL) strain followed by strain of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi MTCC-3522 (0.4µL/ mL), Strept. intestnalis and Strept. pyogenes (0. 4µL/ mL), Strept. equi ssp. equi (0.8µL/ mL), Bacillus polymyxa (1.5 µL/ mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.0µL/ mL). The study emphasizes need for evolution of some short of central universally accepted guidelines to perform and report antimicrobial activity of herbal antimicrobials so that the comparable data can be analyzed for future meta-analytical and clinical purposes.

    Development of a Thin Layer Chromatography Method for the Estimation of Quinine and Ciprofloxacin

    By Kalyani A. Jadhav*, Ramesh L. Sawant, Kallyani D. Tanpure-
    (566) (24)

    A new, rapid, and specific thin layer chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of quinine and ciprofloxacin. Separation was achieved in chromatographic tank by using adsorbent material as silica gel which was applied on glass plate and mobile phase as acetonitrile: methanol: 0.1% triethylamine in water: (1:6:3 v/v/v) was found to resolve quinine and ciprofloxacin. Detection was achieved by using iodine flakes. The selected chromatographic conditions effectively separated quinine and ciprofloxacin with the distance travelled by quinine and ciprofloxacin 2.6 cm and 1.9 cm with the distance travelled by solvent 5 cm. This gives R f value 0.52 and 0.38 for quinine and ciprofloxacin respectively. The developed method was completely novel, reproducible and specific.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Orally Fast Dispersing Tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate

    By Gupta Kulbhushan*, Arora Vandana, Bhalla Vijay -
    (566) (24)

    The present research work was undertaken to develop mouth dissolving tablet of terbutaline sulphate with benefits to the patients. Superdisintegrants such as Crospovidone, Crosscarmellose and Sodium Starch Glycolate were used. A combination of two different diluents in various concentrations was used along with superdisintegrants. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and the selected formulation was compared with in vitro dissolution test. It was concluded that a mixture of diluents improves disintegrate rapidly and provide rapid onset of action as compare with conventional formulation.

    Analytical Techniques by Mass spectrophotometry for the Estimation of Mirtazapinein Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: A Review

    By P. Sridhar*, C. Radhika, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheswara Rao-
    (566) (24)

    Mirtazapine (MRZ) has a piperazinoazepine structure1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2- methylpyrazino [2,1-a]-pyrido [2,3-c][2] benzazepine}. It belongs to the class of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic inhibitor antidepressants (NaSSA). MRZ increases the central noradrenergic an serotonergic activity by blocking α2 adrenergic receptors. MRZ also acts as an antagonist of postsynaptic serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) and type 3 (5-HT3) drug has a different mechanism compared to most of the second generation antidepressants, and it is used to treat generalized anxiety , obsessive–compulsive , and post traumatic stress disorders . It has a high affinity for histamine H1 receptors: Literature survey reveals that Mirtazapine is estimated by Mass spectrometry.

    Development and Validation of a RP- HPLC Method for Quantitation of Oxcarbazepine in Tablet Dosage Form

    By Purva Singh*, Manish Kumar Gupta, Chakresh Kumar, Vijay Bhalla-
    (566) (24)

    A novel, accurate and precise HPLC method for determination of oxcarbazepine has been developed and validated. Separation was achieved on X Terra C18 column (50 x 4.6 mm internal diameter and 5μm particle size) using Ammonium Bicarbonate and Acetonitrile as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and photo diode array detection at 214nm. The developed method was applied for quantitative determination of above drugs in tablet dosage forms and the method was validated with respect to specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, system suitability, robustness and solution stability. The method was linear over the range of 50-300ug/ml for Oxcarbazepine respectively. The mean recovery was found to be in the range of 99.01-99.28%. The percentage of relative standard deviation was found to be less than critical value. The method was found to be accurate, precise and selective for simultaneous estimation of Oxcarbazepine in tablets.

    Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Formulation of Famciclovir

    By Vandana Arora Sethi*, Abdul W. Siddiqui , Govind Mohan-
    (566) (24)

    Niosomes are one of the best and most effective among these carriers system. Because of the presence of hydrophilic, lipophilic and amphiphilic moieties in the structure, these niosomes can accommodate various drug molecules with a wide range of solubility. So, these may act as a depot, releasing the drug in a defined manner. Rationale behind the present study is to improve the oral bioavailability of Famciclovir by preparing niosomes. Encapsulation of Famciclovir in lipophilic vesicular structure may be expected to enhance the dissolution, oral absorption and prolong the existence of the drug in the systemic circulation. The niosomal dispersions were formulated using various combinations of cholesterol and spans. The formulations were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo and compared with the marketed preparation of Famciclovir.

    Isolated Bacterial Pathogens In Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern In Hospital

    By Md. Ishtiaque Ahmad, Syed Md. Javed, Y. Muzzafari-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonest infections encountered in hospitals despite the widespread availability of antimicrobial agents UTI has become difficult to treat because of appearance of pathogens with Poly Antimicrobial antibiotics resistant bacteria which is emerging. Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study were to identify the prevalent etiological Bacterial pathogens of the UTI and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of pathogens isolated. Methodology: The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in a Narayan Medical College and Hospital Jamuhar, Sasaram in department of microbiology. From December 2010 to march 2012. Total 258 urine samples were tested bacteriologically and for antibiotic susceptibility using standard procedures. Results: Out of 258 urine samples 142 (55%) patients tested positive for culture out of 142 samples 125 gram negative bacteria 17 gram positive bacteria isolated, most commonly associated bacteria isolated were E.coli (57.60% ) followed by and Klebsiella spp (16.90%) Enterobacter spp (7.04%),proteus(5.63%),pseudomonas sp (3.52%) citrobacter(2.81%)etc. amongst the gram negative bacilli .Amongst the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8.45 %) was commonest. E. coli which was the main isolate identified was found to be highly susceptible to Meropenem(80.78%) Amikacin (70.4%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (68.14%) norfloxacin (80.92%) and Nitrofurantoin (48.58%). Ceftriaxone (68.74%),ceftazidime(70.42%) etc.

    Formulation And Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Matrix Tablets of Metronidazole Using Khaya Ivorensis Gum

    By Clifford Orakwe, Collins O. Airemwen, Michael U. Uhumwangho*-
    (566) (24)

    This study was carried out to design and evaluate gastro-retentive floating matrix tablets (GFMTs) of metronidazole formulated using Khaya ivorensis gum. Granules were prepared by wet granulation technique using the gum at varying concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w). Sodium bicarbonate (30%) and tartaric acid (5%) were incorporated as the gas generating agent. Formulations were either prepared alone with the Khaya ivorensis or with the addition of 1.0% w/w of acrylatemethacrylate copolymer. All granules were evaluated for micromeritic properties and compressed at an optimized compression pressure of 30 arbitrary units on the tableting machine load scale. Tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, floating lag time, in vitro buoyancy test and drug release profiles. Release data were subjected to analysis by zero order flux, first order, Higuchi square root of time relationship and Korsmeyer equations. Results revealed that all formulated gastroretentive floating matrix granules (GFMG) were free flowing with angle of repose and Carr’s index ≤ 29.1o and ≤ 19% respectively. The floating lag time for GFMTs was ≤ 725 seconds. The in vitro buoyancy test of GFMTs formulations using the gum alone (i.e. without the incorporation of acrylatemethacrylate copolymer) were <12 h while those with acrylatemethacrylate copolymer were >12 h. All GFMG were compressible with tablet hardness between 14.1 – 45.7N while percentage friability was ≤ 0.97%. There was a significant difference in tablet hardness with increase in binder concentration (p<0.05). All formulations fitted well into Higuchi model release kinetics. Formulations KI - K3 have their exponent values <0.45, hence their release mechanism was by Fickian diffusion while for K4 and K5 their exponent values > 0.45, therefore the release mechanism for all these formulations was by non Fickian diffusion. The conclusion is that GFMTs of metronidazole have been developed using Khaya ivorensis gum which can sustain drug formulation for up to 10h.

    Preparation and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Antihypertensive Drug

    By Sanjivani B. Gunale*, Laxmi B. Mane-
    (566) (24)

    In the present study, the attempt have been made to develop GRDDS by using ethyl cellulose and HPMC as release retarding material by solvent evaporation technique. The microspheres were prepared by using different concentrations of polymers individually as well as in combination of both the polymers. The compatibility study of drug and polymer was carried out by IR, DSC analysis. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug content, percentage yiled, particle size analysis surface morphology and % buoyancy. It was observed that increase in the concentration of polymer, there is increase in the entrapment efficiency. The effect of polymer concentration on the in vitro release of the telmisartan from microspheres was also studied. It can be seen that increase in the polymer concentration, decreases the rate of drug release dramatically. It is observed that the microspheres containing both the polymers i.e. EC and HPMC showed best results.

    Evaluating the Efficacy of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Linn Mucilage as Tablet Binder in the Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Perindopril Erbumine

    By Patil Pradeep S*, Gaikwad Sonali-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of the current study is to formulate oro-dispersible tablets of Perindopril Erbumine using a natural binder which was extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn. The leaves of this plant yield mucilage which was used as binder and was extracted using acetone. Perindopril Erbumine an ACE inhibitor was used as a model drug for this study. Perindopril Erbumine is used as an anti-hypertensive agent. It was observed from the evaluations that the batch F1 showed the best disintegration time and also completes drug release within five minutes. Hence it was concluded that orally disintegrating tablets of Perindopril Erbumine can be successfully formulated using mucilage extracted from Hibiscus rosasinensis linn as a tablet binder.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches of Antihypertensive Drug

    By Atif Hussain Halwai*, Shaffi Khurana -
    (566) (24)

    Transdermal therapeutic system are defined as self-contained, discrete dosage forms, which when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug(s), through the skin, at a controlled rate to the systemic circulation so that it can improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the drugs. Through a diffusion process the drug enters the bloodstream, directly through the skin. The main disadvantages to transdermal delivery systems stems from the fact that the skin is a very effective barrier, as a result only medications whose molecules are small enough to penetrate the skin can be delivered. The purpose of this study was to develop suitable matrix transdermal therapeutics system of atenolol with different proportions of Ethyl cellulose (EC) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl cellulose (HPMC). Five formulations were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared patched showed satisfactory physiochemical characteristics of weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, moisture lost, moisture absorption for stability of the formulation and drug content were uniform in all patches. Invitro study done by using Franz diffusion cell having cellophane membrane to determine the amount of drug present in the formulation patch. In different formulation on the basis of evaluation parameters and by optimization study formulation F4 shows satisfactory drug release pattern.

    Comparative Study of Allium Cepa, Zingiber Officinale And Allium Sativum for Its Antimicrobial Property

    By Anuja Sudhakar Zine*, Nilesh Prabhakar Zine-
    (566) (24)

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are one of the major problems challenging the health care system in general. The antibacterial activity of fresh red and white Allium cepa (Onion) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger), garlic (Allium Sativum) juices against multidrug resistant bacteria viz: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aerobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaricus pure cultures were investigated using agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods. All the bacteria were susceptible to the fresh garlic and white onion juice with the diameter of zones of inhibition ranging from 1.3cm-5.5cm while the test bacteria were not sensitive to the fresh ginger juice. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M. I. C.) of garlic were low in ranging from 1.125 – 25 %v/v and that of white onion was 2.125- 50%v/v. This study indicates that the fresh juices of white onion (Allium cepa) and garlic possess significant antibacterial potency against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Quantitative Analysis of Almotriptan Malate by UV Spectrophotometric Method Development

    By Karva G. S.*, Dr. S. S. Khadabadi-
    (566) (24)

    Aim/background: A simple, rapid, precise, and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Almotriptan Malate in pharmaceutical formulation Materials and Methods: The simple, precise, economical and rapid method was developed and validated for the estimation of Almotriptan Malate using 0.1N HCl as a solvent. The stock solution of Almotriptan Malate was prepared and subsequent suitable dilution was prepared in 0.1N HCl to obtained standard curve. The standard solution of Almotriptan Malate showed two absorption maxima, one at 283.000 nm and another at 283.00 nm. Results: The drug obeyed beer lambert’s law in the concentration range of 10-100 µg/ mL with regression 0.9998 at 283.00 nm. The overall % recovery was found to be 99.82% which reflects that the method is free from interference of the impurities and other additives used in formulation. The low value of % RSD was indicative of accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The %RSD for interday and intraday precision was found to be 0.1874 and 0.3612, respectively which is <2% hence proved that method is precise. Conclusions: The results of analysis have been validated as per ICH guidelines. The developed method can be adopted in routine analysis of Almotriptan Malate in tablet dosage form as well bulk dosage form

    Development and Evaluation of Oral Floatable In situ Gel Containing Ranolazine

    By Kirankumar Navade, Kopparam Manjunath*-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of the present study is to develop and evaluate stomach specific oral floatable in situ gel of Ranolazine using pH triggered mechanism. The in situ gel is developed using gellan gum as gelling agent and HPMC K 100M as drug release retarding polymer. Calcium chloride is added as source of Ca2+ ion required for gelation. The different batches of gels were prepared and in vitro release study for the same is carried out by USP dissolution test apparatus using 900 ml of 0.1N HCl, at temperature at 37 °C. Developed in situ gelling solutions were evaluated for pH measurement, viscosity determination, in vitro gelling studies, in vitro buoyancy studies, drug content, in vitro release study and stability studies were done according to ICH guidelines. FTIR study revealed no interaction between drug and selected polymer. pH of gels were neutral in nature. Viscosity of F8 (optimized formulation) was in acceptable range and possess enough gelling capacity. Viscosity of solutions and gel strength were increased with increase in the concentration of polymers. The F8 showed an increased floating time upto 14 hrs and drug content 92±0.23%. The in vitro release data revealed that 91.23 % of drug released over the period of 12 hrs. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed that there was no significant drug-excipient interaction and degradation. The drug release was sustained as the polymer concentration increased in the formulae. Stability study showed no remarkable changes in drug content, viscosity and other evaluation parameters. The results suggested that developed floating in situ gel could perform better than conventional dosage forms leading to improved efficacy and better patient compliance.

    Study of Acid Neutralizing Capacity of Various Antacid Formulations

    By Dr. K Jagadesh, Dr. Chidananda K N*-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Antacids are the substances most commonly used by the patients to obtain fast symptomatic relief from dyspepsia. They are the week base which neutralize the gastric acid and raise the pH of the gastric contents. The potency of the antacids depends upon their acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). The antacid neutralizing capacity varies from one another depending upon their formulations. Materials and methods: The present study was undertaken to study the acid neutralizing capacity of commonly available antacids formulations using titration and pH meter method. Six liquid formulations and six solid tablet formulations were studied for their acid neutralizing capacity Results: The acid neutralizing capacity among the liquid formulations was highest for Dioval 26.28±0.05 by pH meter method and 26.17±0.18 by titration method. Among solid antacid formulations ANC was highest with Riflux forte being 25.77±0.06 by pH meter method and 25.73±0.17 by titration method. Both the formulations had higher magnesium hydroxide concentration when compared to other antacids. Conclusion: The acid neutralizing capacity was highest with the antacids containing magnesium hydroxide. For acute fast symptomatic relief from dyspepsia antacids containing higher concentration of magnesium hydroxide would be helpful.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Cefpodoxime Proxetil Solid Dispersion: An Approach for Dissolution Enhancement of Cephalosporin

    By Kashish Aziz*, Babar Iqbal, Azim Akhtar, Kanchan Kohli, Sanjula Baboota, Abdul Mateen-
    (566) (24)

    Cefpodoxime Proxetil is an broad spectrum, third generation cephalosporin drug used in the treatment of skin infections, upper respiratory tract and urinary tract infections. Furthermore it shows low aqueous solubility, poor dissolution and hence low oral bioavailability. In present study an attempt has been made to enhance the aqueous solubility of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and hence its availability in aqueous media. Solid dispersion (SD) of Cefpodoxime Proxetil using soluplus as carrier was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The prepared solid dispersion was characterized using FTIR, SEM, DSC and evaluated for In vitro drug release. FTIR and DSC results indicated chemical compatibility between drug and carrier. Moreover DSC thermogram of SD and pure drug suggested the change in crystallinity of Cefpodoxime Proxetil. SEM showed that the physical structure of Cefpodoxime Proxetil was modified from crystalline to amorphous. Dissolution rate of Cefpodoxime Proxetil, physical mixture and SD were found 46.3%, 65.04% and 91.04 % respectively Which concluded a significant improvement in in vitro drug release profile. Solid dispersion of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and soluplus prepared in 1:10 ratio by solvent evaporation method resulted in enhancement of aqueous solubility of Cefpodoxime Proxetil and hence improved dissolution.

    Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Three Cephalosporins on Clinical Isolates

    By Sylvester C. Ohadoma*, Felix N. Osuala-
    (566) (24)

    Objective: To compare in-vitro antimicrobial activity of commonly used cephalosporins against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Material and methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria, and were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion standard procedure. Result: Ceftriaxone gave the highest zone of inhibition value against Proteus specie (29.70 mm) and E. coli (25.50 mm), as compared to cefuroxime (15.60 mm and 12.00 mm), and Ceftadizime (21.00 mm and 14. 50 mm) respectively. There were however, differences in the zones of inhibition values of the three Cephalosporins with Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions: From the result obtained, ceftiaxone was the most effective antibiotic in inhibiting the growth of the four clinical isolates especially E. coli and Proteus specie, and hence could be used for treatment of resistant organisms where ceftadizime and cefuroxime have failed.

    Pharmacognostic and Antimicrobial Screening of Leaf Extracts of Annona muricata

    By Felix N. Osuala, Sylvester C. Ohadoma*-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Medicinal plants have continued to attract attention in the global search for effective antimicrobial agents that can combat resistant pathogens that have been rendering many conventional drugs obsolete in the treatment of infections. Aim: To determine the pharmacognostic and antimicrobial effect of the leaf of Annona muricata. Materials and methods: The pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of A.muricatawas carried out using microscopic, macroscopic, chemomicroscopic, and phytochemical methods; while the antimicrobial activity was determined using agar cup diffusion technique. Results: The Chemomicroscopic evaluation revealed the presence of lignin, starch, and cellulose. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. The extract showed varied inhibitory effects against the test-microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillusniger and Candida albicans at concentrations 10-100 g/ml. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of Annona muricata and the basis for its inclusion in herbal preparations used to treat infectious diseases.

    Impact of a Physician - Clinical Pharmacist Collaborative Approach on Improving the Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    By Ali A. Alyahawi*, Osama A. Badary, Rawya A. Khater , Manal H. El-Hamamsy , Abdulkareem M. AL-Khawlani-
    (566) (24)

    Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a clinical pharmacist-physician collaborative practice compared with usual care on improving outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c < 7%) at a teaching hospital in Yemen. Patients were randomly allocated into control and intervention group. The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care interventions developed by the clinical pharmacist in collaboration with the physician while the control group patients received usual care without clinical pharmacist’s input. Results: After the nine months follow-up, there was statically significant in a mean reduction of HbA1c between groups of this study (2.8 % in the intervention group versus 1.8 % in the control; P = 0.009). In addition, the study findings showed that the most commonly identified drug related problems were the inappropriate knowledge about the time of drug administration (20.4 %). Conclusions: The results suggest the benefits of integrating clinical pharmacist services in multidisciplinary healthcare team of diabetes management.

    Development and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System of Tizanidine Hydrochloride

    By Gajanan V. Pulgamwar*, Ram S. Pentewar, Rohit U. Bharti, P.H. Bhosle, S.N. Kazi, N.A. Inamdar-
    (566) (24)

    The buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and provides rapid absorption for drugs than oral route Tizanidine hydrochlorideis a non-selective, α-2 adrenergic agonist receptor. Tizanidine hydrochloride undergoes first-pass hepatic metabolism by oral route and exhibits only 40% bioavailability. Because of poor bioavailability of Tizanidine hydrochloride by oral route, there is a need to increase its bioavailability by formulating it into buccal dosage forms. Hence, Tizanidine hydrochloride is a suitable drug for buccal dosage forms and may provide a better therapeutic profile than oral route. A number of buccal mucoadhesive patches of Tizanidine hydrochloride were prepared by solvent casting method using HPMC, Hydroxy ethyl cellulose, Carboxy methyl cellulose sodium, Carbopol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as polymer. Propylene glycol was used as plasticizers, while the solvent chosen was water. The films were uniform and translucent. These were having good strength and visually smooth surfaced. The films were evaluated on the basis of their release characteristics, swelling Index, surface pH, folding endurance, film thickness, weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, Bursting Strength. In-vitro release studies were conducted for Tizanidine hydrochloride loaded patches in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 75.79% to 93.98% in 7th hours. The best formulation (F3) exhibit in vitro drug releases 93.17±1.56 %. This may improve the bioavailability of the Tizanidine hydrochlorideis a non-selective, α-2 adrenergic agonist receptor.

    Optimization of Formulation of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System Containing Atenelol

    By A. H. Attar*, Mr. V. D. Havaldar-
    (566) (24)

    Floating dosage form is an oral dosage form that is designed to prolong the residence time of dosage form within the GI tract. It is formulation of a drug and gel forming hydrocolloids meant to remain buoyant on stomach contents. The purpose of this investigation was to optimize the formulation of gastroretentive drug delivery system of Atenelol. Atenelol is a drug of choice for the treatment of hypertension and it is a ß-1 cardio selective adrenergic receptor blocker. Optimization of formulation of floating tablets of Atenelol was done depending upon three different factors such as controlled drug release of drug, floating characteristics and hardness of tablets. This was carried out by studying the effect of different proportions of the polymers, effervescent and different compression pressure. Semi-synthetic polymers HPMC-K100M and a natural polymer, Xanthan gum were used to assess the effect on the release of drug. Dicalcium phosphate was used as a channeling agent. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Evaluation of powder blends like angle of repose, bulk density, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio was evaluated. Atenelol floating tablets were evaluated for In vitro dissolution and floating lag time. Evaluation of tablets i.e. diameter, thickness, friability, hardness, average weight and content uniformity were performed. Drug release from the tablets was sufficiently sustained.

    Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage from Linum Usitatissimum Seeds

    By Ujjwala Y. Kandekar*, Praveen D. Chaudhari, K. B.Chandrasekhar-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of the current research work is to isolate the mucilage from Linum usitatissimum and test it for different phytochemicals, characteristic functional groups, pH, swelling index and viscosity. It was found that mucilage contains carbohydrates, polysaccharides, mucilage, gum and protein which are common composition of polymers obtained from the natural sources. Loss on drying, ash value, acid soluble ash, water soluble ash values are 5.2%, 6.3%, 5.78%, 4.98% respectively. pH of the extract is 7.1 and swelling index is 8.5, viscosity at different speed is found in the range of 20.65-40.7 centipoise. It can be concluded that isolated polymer is biocompatible, method of isolation is relatively simple and suitable for use as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Influence of Tamarind Seed Gum and Chitosan on Sustained Release Tablets of Ropinirole Hydrochloride

    By K. Anie Vijetha*, Dr. N. Srinivas, Jetti Mahesh, P. Suresh, Meda Sowmya, R. Neelima, Padma Keerthana. R-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of the present study was to develop the oral sustained release matrix tablets of Ropinirole HCl by using Tamarind seed gum in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) and comparative studies were carried out by taking any other natural gum in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). In this work other Gum choosen for comparison is Chitosan. Ropinirole HCl is used in treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease and also in treatment of moderate to severe primary RLS. Its biological half life was found to be 6 hours. Sustained release formulations of Ropirinole HCl (6mg) were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical, in vitro drug release and stability studies. Optimization of the formulation was done by studying, effect of different drug:polymer ratio on drug release. FTIR studies indicated absence of any interaction between Ropinirole HCl and polymers. The Pre-compression and post compression parameters of all the formulations were found to be within the limits. In-vitro dissolution studies results elicited that by increasing Drug:Gum ratios, the drug release was found to be retarded and F4 formulation(Drug:TSG in 1:4) was found to be the optimized formulation with 99.32% CDR for a period of 12 hrs.

    Influence of Tamarind Seed Gum and Carrageenan On Sustained Release Tablets of Ropinirole Hydrochloride

    By K.Anie Vijetha, Dr. N. Srinivas, Padma Keerthana. R, R. Neelima, Meda Sowmya, P. Suresh, Jetti Mahesh-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of the present study was to develop the oral sustained release matrix tablets of Ropinirole HCl by using Tamarind seed gum and carrageenan in different Drug:Gum ratios (i.e.1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Ropinirole HCl is used in treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease and also in treatment of moderate to severe primary Restless leg syndrome(RLS). Its biological half life was found to be 6 hours. Sustained release formulations of Ropirinole HCl (6mg) were prepared by direct compression method and the tablets were subjected to physicochemical, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. FTIR studies indicated absence of any interaction between Ropinirole HCl and polymers used. The Pre-compression and post compression parameters of all the formulations were found to be within the limits. In-vitro dissolution studies results elicited that, by increasing Drug:Gum ratio, the drug release was found to be retarded and F4 formulation (Drug:TSG in 1:4) was found to be the optimized formulation with 99.32% CDR for a period of 12 hrs. The drug release data was fit well to the zero order. Korsmeyer’s plot indicated that the drug release mechanism from the matrix tablet followed Anomalous(non-Fickian) diffusion. Stability studies showed that no change in physical appearance, drug content or dissolution pattern of optimized formulation F4 after storage at 40°C temperature and relative humidity 75% RH for 90 days.

    A Pilot Cross-Over Study to Assess the Human Bio Availability of “Cureit” A Bio Available Curcumin in Complete Natural Matrix

    By Sreeraj Gopi*, Robin George, Mercy Thomas, Shintu Jude-
    (566) (24)

    Curcumin is a safe, effective and potential compound, finds its application as an ingredient for foods and medicines. In order to be effective as a medicine, it has to be more bio available than usual forms. Even though the concentration by composition is increased, it cannot be absorbed to the body- but, some formulations can. Curcumin is found to have potential benefits on treatment and prevention of several diseases. But, the low bioavailability makes a barrier for its use. Cureit, a novel bio available Curcumin formulation, have developed naturally, of which, bioavailability is compared with that of normal Curcumin. It is found to be >10 fold more bio available than the normal Curcumin.

    Studies On Effect of Guava Leaves Extract Against Selected Enteric Bacteria

    By Chavan M.D., Bansode D.S.* -
    (566) (24)

    In the present work we evaluated the antibacterial activity of crude Guava (Psidium guajava) leaves extract in comparison with Standard antibiotics Cholistin, Erythromycein, Ciprofloxin, Methicillin, Ampicillin and Cephalosporin. For the present study following bacterial cultures were used those were Salmonella typhi (8 strains), Shigella dysenteriae (7 strains), Salmonella paratyphi A (5 strains), Salmonella paratyphi B (7strains), E.coli (4 strains), Citrobactor spp. (3 strains). The antimicrobial activity of Crude Guava leaves extract was represented in table 1. Guava leaves extract showed highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi strain I (ZOI-20mm), Shigella dysenteriae strain I (ZOI- 15mm), Salmonella paratyphi A strain II (ZOI-18mm), Salmonella paratyphi B strain V (ZOI- 20mm), E.coli strain III (ZOI- 14mm) and Citrobactor spp. strain III (ZOI- 20mm). Salmonella typhi strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 12mm). Shigella dysenteriae strain IV was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ampicillin (ZOI- 13mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 16mm). Salmonella paratyphi A strain III was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 15mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 14mm). Salmonella paratyphi B strain V was observed sensitive to antibiotic Ciprofloxin (ZOI- 18mm) and Ampicillin (ZOI- 15mm). E.coli strain I was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 14mm), Ampicillin (ZOI-10mm), Cephalosporin (ZOI- 17mm) and Erythromycein (ZOI- 15mm). Citrobactor spp. strain I, was observed sensitive to antibiotic Cholistin (ZOI- 11mm). The results of this study showed that some pathogenic enteric bacteria were observed resistant to standard antibiotics but they were observed sensitive to the crude Guava leaves extract. The results of the present study also support the medicinal usage of the Guava leaves.

    Phytochemical Investigation and Antiulcer Activity of Momordia Charantia (Linn.) Seeds

    By Patil K.S, Bavage S.B*-
    (566) (24)

    Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is a plant, reported for its variety of ethnic medicinal uses. Hence we have planned to screen antiulcer activity of seeds of the plant with the various extracts.Coarsely powdered seeds were successively extracted with petroleumether,chloroform,methanol and macerated with water and all the extracts were subjected for phytochemical screening to identify different phytoconstituents. Ld50 studies for all extracts were conducted upto the dose level of 1.5g/kg by following OECD of guidelines No.425. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated in animal model like Pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in rats. Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of fats and oils alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids in all extracts of M.charantia. No mortality was observed with all extracts up to the maximum dose level of 1.5 g/kg. Further all extracts at 150 mg/kg p.o doses significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer score, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in rats. The present study revealed the antiulcer activity of seed extracts of M.charantia and the activities are due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as fats and oils alkaloids, proteins and Flavonoids as these phytochemical constituents were already reported for the above mentioned effects.

    Study of Relationship between Blood Groups and Ischemic Heart Disease in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery of Mazandaran Heart Center in Sari, 2012

    By S. Azizi, Shervin Ziabakhsh Tabary*-
    (566) (24)

    Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of mortality in the developing countries. In Iran 15 million from 70 million people suffer from cardiovascular disease. The most important risk factors are age; male sex; family history; hyperlipidemia; hypertension; diabete mellitus; obesity and smoking. Blood group was studied as a risk factor for many diseases like peptic ulcer, carcinoma of stomach, periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus. With the background of conflicting results, the present study was done to evaluate association of ABO blood groups and Rh with IHD in our setting. This analytic comparative study was done at the department of Cardiology, Mazandaran Heart Center Sari .Total 1020 persons were included in the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. There is not any association between ABO blood groups and Rh with ischemic heart disease (IHD) in our setting. But this study, showed definite higher family history risk factor with Rh positive blood groups.

    Preformulation Study of Raloxifene Hydrochloride for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    By Iti Chauhan*-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of the present work was to perform the preformulation studies of Raloxifene hydrochloride to determine certain key physicochemical parameters which can be further used to develop a feasible transdermal formulation. Preformulation testing is done to generate data useful to the formulator in developing stable and bioavailable dosage form. On oral administration RLH undergoes extensive first pass metabolism resulting in poor bioavailability so the target was to prepare a transdermal drug delivery system (patch) of RLH to increase its bioavailability. The drive of formulating a patch is to provide a safe, simple and alternative route of administration for the prevention of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Development of analytical method, solubility profile, partition coefficient, particle size and drug excipient interaction were investigated as per the requirements of preformulation study. All the results found testify the candidature of RLH for transdermal drug delivery.

    Estimation Herb/Spice/Vegetables Trace Elements: North-West-Regional State(s) of Haryana (India)

    By Permender Rathee, Ashima Hooda, Sushila Rathee*, Vikash Kumar-
    (566) (24)

    A number of elements (bio-active traces from Herbs/Spices/Vegetables) can to improve the taste of foods as well as influence digestion (with metabolism processes and also contains an integer residues of undesirable components (myco-toxins/pesticides/heavy metals/poly-cyclic carbohydrates that can be harmful). The metals (i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) contents in (North-West region of Haryana States) mainly trendy spices/vegetables levels were estimated by atomic absorption (AAS; assayed) method. Moreover, the resulted data of metals (Zn and Cu) levels were found with-in limits to be safe (excluding Mn and Fe metals data demonstrated the higher concentration in spices/vegetables can be considered as toxic for human) by comparison with safety standards of National Ministry of Health (NMH).

    Phytochemical Studies and Safety Evaluation of Terminalia pallida Roots and Boswelia ovalifoliolata Roots

    By Shalaka D. Kadam*, Dr. Chandanam Sreedhar, Dr. K.B.Chandrasekhar-
    (566) (24)

    Terminalia pallida brandis and Boswellia ovalifoliolata are most commonly found plants in the south India. Methanolic and n-Hexane extract of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots were analysed for photochemical studies and acute toxicity study. Safety evaluation of both the plants in both the extracts is essential for the evaluation of any pharmacological activity. Present study clarifies path for pharmaceutical investigation of Terminalia pallida roots and Boswellia ovalifoliolata roots in methanolic and n-Hexane extract.

    In vitro antitermite activity of alkaloids from Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting (Araceae) against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus

    By Nidhi Srivastava*, Anju Meshram-
    (566) (24)

    Plants of Araceae family are well known sources of secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antioxidative, analgesic, and antipyretic properties, among others. In the present study laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate antitermite response of alkaloids isolated Epipremnum aureum(Linden and Andre) Bunting leaf, stem and root against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus. Purified fractions of alkaloid showed remarkable toxicity against O. obesus at forty times dilution with respect to control. Soil sample with termites were collected from field and healthy termites were sorted out. Thirty active workers were released on each treated Whatman filter paper (90mm diameter) fitted inside glass petridishes. Mortality of termites was observed after fifteen minutes and compared with untreated filter papers. Highest mortality rate has been recorded with alkaloids isolated from leaves of E. aureum. Results of present study may be useful for development of herbal formulation for spot treatment in termite infested buildings, agriculture, furniture and to overcome synthetic termiticides borne problems.

    Anthelmintic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tectonia Grandis

    By Mane L.B.* Hingmire Y.R., Gunale S.B.-
    (566) (24)

    Tectonia Grandis Linn. Belonging to family Verbenaceae commonly known as Teak or sagwan. It is commonly found in India and other south Asian countries. Teak is also considered as a major constituent in many folklore medicines. Medicinally it has various pharmacological activities. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of bark of Tectonia grandis Linn. by using adult earthworm pheritima posthuma.Various concentration of extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Ivermectin was used as a reference standard and tween 80 in saline as a control group.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Rizatriptan Benzoate Orodispersible Tablets

    By M.Vijaya Laxmi*, Dashavarnachary.V, P. Mamatha Rani -
    (566) (24)

    Oral disintegrating tablets have emerged as an alternative to the conventional oral dosage forms to improve the patient compliance. Due to problem in swallowing ability with age, the paediatric and geriatric patients complain of difficulty to take conventional solid dosage forms. The ODT’s are solid dosage forms that dissolve or disintegrate rapidly in the oral cavity. This results in solution or suspension without the need of water. The main objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate Rizatriptan Benzoate ODT’s using different concentration of super disintegrating agents like croscarmellose, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG), Crospovidone, Yellow potato starch. In this study uses different concentrations of diluents like Spry Dried Lactose, Avicel, Mannitol to optimize diluents concentration. After optimizing diluents concentration the study is continued by using different super disintegrating agents. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, and percentage of drug release. The results indicated that formulation prepared with Crospovidone and Avicel: Mannitol (30:70) was found to be optimised which provides maximum drug release(100%) and minimum disintegration time (less than 10 second).

    Formulation And Evaluation of Medicated Chewing Gum Containing Caffeine Salicylate

    By A. H. Attar*, Dr. S. P. Gawade-
    (566) (24)

    Caffeine salicylate shows more CNS stimulant activity than caffeine along with mild analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. Caffeine salicylate was synthesized in Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Satara College of Pharmacy, Satara. Chewing gum formulation was prepared in tablet form by using direct compression method. Lecithin was used as an emulisifier and sorbitol as a softner and synthetic gum base along with other excipients. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing the concentration of emulsifier and softner. Evaluation of tablets i.e. diameter, thickness, friability, hardness, average weight, content uniformity, stickiness and dissolution study were performed. A 32 full factorial design was selected and the 2 factors were evaluated at 3 levels. The amount of sorbitol (X1) and lecithin (X2) were selected as independent variables and the dependent variables were hardness and percent drug release at 30 min (%DR30min). The data obtained was treated using Stat-Ease Design Expert 8.0.7.1 software and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

    Simultaneous Estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Combined Dosage Form by UV-Spectrophotometric Methods

    By Santosh Jadhav, Pradip Digge*, Ajit Gaikwad, Laxmi Jamagondi-
    (566) (24)

    Two simple, precise and accurate derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A is Area Under Curve method, which involved the measurement of area between 252 to 260 nm and 248 to 260 nm for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole respectively. Method B applied Zero order derivative spectrophotometry, which involved measuring the absorbance values at 256 nm and 254 nm of Zero derivative spectrum, without mutual interference with a linearity range of 2-10µg/mL and 2-10µg/mL for the estimation of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole, respectively for both the methods. Results of analysis were statistically reported and were found to be satisfactory.

    Recent Trends of Nanotechnology In Drug Delivery And Their Application-An Overview

    By Sandip Gavandi, Santosh Jadhav, Geeta Sapkale-
    (566) (24)

    Controlled drug delivery systems (DDS) have several advantages compared to the traditional dosage forms. From the last few decades, there has been a considerable research on the basis of Novel drug delivery system, using particulate drug delivery systems as such drug carriers for small and large molecules. Nanoparticles, Liposomes, Microspheres, Niosomes, Pronisomes, Ethosomes, and Pro-liposomes have been used as drug carrier in vesicle drug delivery system. Various polymers have been used in the formation of Nanocarriers. Nanocarriers are colloidal particulate systems with size ranging between 10-1000 nm. This are used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of various diseases and physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of various types of drug molecules. Controlled and targeted delivery is one of the most valuable requirements from a carrier, which involves multi-disciplinary site specific or targeted approach. Nanoparticulate drug delivery system may offer plenty of advantages over conventional dosage forms, which includes improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, enhanced biodistribution and improved patient compliance.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Pellets of Antiviral Drug Lamivudine

    By Sadhana R. Shahi*, Prashant. K. Puranik, Vaishali R. Kadam-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of the study was to develop sustained release matrix pellets of Lamivudine, using various viscosity grades of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose as retardant polymers The pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique. The pellets were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and hausners ratio and in vitro drug release studies. The pellets showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility. The results of in vitro dissolution studies indicated that formulation F8 is the most successful formulation of the study and exhibited highest drug release in the initial hours and the total release pattern was very close to the theoretical release profile of pellets. The rate of drug release decreased with increased polymer concentration. It was found that HPMC viscosity had a significant impact on the drug release from the prepared sustained release matrix pellets. The decrease in the release rate was observed with an increase in the polymeric system.Plastizer concentration also affect the sphericity of pellets and also affect the release rate. Thus, sustained release matrix pellets of Lamivudine using polymers were successfully formulated, evaluated.

    A Comparative Evaluation of Branded and Generic Versions of Levocetrizine and Cephalexin

    By Pritam Singh, Rakesh Kumar Marwaha, Arun Nanda-
    (566) (24)

    In India most of its population spend huge amount of money on the branded medicines but most of the drugs are also available in the generic version which comply with Indian Pharmacopoeial standards. By prescribing these medicines doctors can reduce cost burden from the patient’s pocket. Most of the drugs are also available at a lower price than the current marketed branded drugs. The main aim of this research work was to compare the generic versions of Cephalexin capsule 250 mg and Levocetrizine 5mg to their branded counterparts. It was concluded that the generics drugs met the Indian Pharmacopoeial standards and were of similar quality as that of branded drugs.

    TLC, HPTLC Studies and Qualitative Phytochemical Investigations of Seeds of Celastrus Paniculatus Willd

    By Vijay Yadav*, Amit Kr. Singh, Vikash Kr. Chaudhari, Praveen Kr. Verma, Anand Kr. Singh, Sailendra Rajpoot-
    (566) (24)

    Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies on Celastrus paniculatus Willd are an interesting field for research due to its possible medicinal values and the importance of the chemical constituents in the similar variety plants. Thus it makes a great significance to investigate the chemical constituents and study the pharmacological activity on this plant for its medicinal uses, which will be very useful in the field of medicine as a new emerging drug. Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Steroid, Terpenoid, Flavonoids, and Glycoside distribution in medicinal plant belonging to family was assessed and was investigated. The plant was found to contain Alkaloids, Tannins and Flavonoids, Steroids etc. The significance of the plant in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents in this plant was objective of this study.

    Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis of Topiramate

    By Rohit Udhav Bharti*, Vandana Gawande-
    (566) (24)

    Selective, inexpensive and validated method was developed and optimized for determination of antiepileptic drug, Topiramate in drug substance and drug product as well as in the presence of pyridine. The method is based on the reaction of the primary amino group of Topiramate with Ninhydrin reagent in ethanolic medium in the presence of 10% pyridine solution. The colored product was measured at 568 nm. The linearity range was found to be 50 – 300 μg mL-1 with mean recovery 98-102%. All variables affecting the reaction conditions were thoroughly studied. The results were found to agree statistically, the method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed method is practical and valuable for their in quality control laboratories for analysis of Topiramate.

    Use of Anti Hypertensive Drugs In Patients of Diabetes

    By Safila Naveed* Zaynab A. Saaya, Zarnab M.Augustine, Summaiya Yousuf and Warda wajahat -
    (566) (24)

    Hypertension is extremely prevalent in patients with diabetes. Our objective is to evaluate utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents among diabetic patients with hypertension. All the major classes of antihypertensives can be used in diabetic patients, but the beta-blockers with thiazide diuretics have metabolic side-effects which make them less appropriate as first line agents. The use of ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists have better metabolic profiles and the latter reduce insulin resistance. Although ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists are suitable as first line antihypertensives drugs used in diabetics evidence is lacking that these drugs reduce morbidity and mortality over and above that seen with other antihypertensives. Our study was data based comprising of 200 patients. Out of 200 patients 131 were with hypertension and 66 consisted of diabetes and hypertension, and 3 patients were with hypertension along with any other disease. The majority of patients were on multidrug regimens. According to our study a large proportion of patients received ACEIs and CCBs. Patterns of antihypertensive therapy were generally consistent with evidence- based practice guidelines.

    Assessment of Community Pharmacy Workflow Process in Preventing Dispensing Errors in Anantapur District

    By P. Samarasimha Reddy*, Md. Waseemuddin*-
    (566) (24)

    The objectives of this analysis were to determine the compliance rate with dispensing workflow criteria and note if any dispensing errors occurred. Observations were made within 20 retail pharmacies, with a total of 500 prescriptions and transactions. Pharmacies were classified and categorized in to high and low risk pharmacies based on the incidence of errors. The compliance rates for the dispensing workflow criteria were observed between high and low risk pharmacies and also between employee categories. Employee categories included pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, pharmacy interns and technicians who were involved in the study for a 06 month period. There were statistically significant variations between the high and low risk pharmacies, between the employee categories. Based on this study, the lack of verification of patient details during prescription pickup was the lack, and more commonly associated with pharmacies dispensing workflow procedure reporting increased incidence of dispensing errors.

    Assessment of Drug Related Problems in Geriatrics with Polypharmacy and Risk Measurement

    By Md. Waseemuddin*, P. Samarasimha Reddy*-
    (566) (24)

    Drug related problems are an essential term in the world of pharmaceutical care. Other terms can be used for the same concept, such as medication errors, but this term is different from drug related problems. The fact that the elderly take more medications for the treatment of several diseases makes them more susceptible to the occurrence of adverse reactions. The errors refer to the mistakes in the process that could lead to problems. Drug related problems can originate when prescribing, dispensing or taking/administering medicines. The aim of this study was to analyze the Drug related problems and usage of drugs among geriatric patients living at old age homes. The results of study shows that males (59.33%) are more affected with chronic diseases than females(41.67%). Drug related problems due to drug interactions followed by drug overdose. Most of the interventions for inappropriate drug contraindications, adverse drug reactions were rectified and improved(100%) followed by other problems. our study concluded that pharmacist can prevent clinical drug related problems by making a suitable intervention.

    Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Modified Release Delivery of Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets

    By R. S. Pentewar, Rohit Udhav Bharti, Kiran Suryawanshi, R.V. Sugave-
    (566) (24)

    The objective behind this study was to formulate and evaluate Modified release tablet of Trazodone hydrochloride by using different hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers by Wet granulation technology and to study the effect of different concentrations of polymers on release rate from tablet. Tablets were prepared using carnauba wax as extra fine powder (8.5-28%), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (2-14.5%), and polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP K-30) (8.5-30%) as release retardant polymers. The FTIR and DSC analysis does not show any interaction of drug with Excipients. The formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable pre and post compressional parameters and in-vitro drug release. The resulting formulations produced monolithic tablets with optimum hardness, consistent weight uniformity and low friability. The results of dissolution studies indicated that Batch F8 exhibited drug release of 99% at the end of 12h to provide sufficient concentration for achieving satisfactory therapeutic value for extended period of time. The drug release from Batch F8 formulation was sustained up to 12 h. Fitting in-vitro drug release data from optimized matrix formulation to first order followed by Korsmeyer’s-Peppas indicated that diffusion could be mechanism of drug release.

    The Dawning Era for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development: An Imminent Mirror

    By Pramod Singh Khatri*-
    (566) (24)

    Treating AIDS is by and large taken to mean clearing the HIV from the body, the virus that lead to AIDS. The virus reproduces (makes new duplicates of itself) by embedding its hereditary code into human cells, especially a type called as CD4 cells. Typically the contaminated cells produce various HIV particles and pass on soon subsequently. Antiretroviral medications meddle with this replication process, which is the reason the medications are so viable at lessening the measure of HIV in an individual's body to amazingly low levels. Tragically, not all contaminated cells act the same way. Likely the most imperative issue is postured by resting CD4 cells. Once tainted with HIV, these cells, as opposed to delivering new duplicates of the virus, lie lethargic for a long time. Current treatments can't expel HIV's hereditary material from these cells. Regardless of the fact that patient takes antiretroviral medications for a long time, HIV still be hiding up in different parts of their body. Studies have observed that if treatment is uprooted then HIV can re-make itself by spilling out viral repositories. As of now, there is no therapeutic choice accessible other than constant prescription of medications for avoiding HIV replication. In spite of the fact that scientists have distinguished cell reservoirs where the virus perseveres amid proceeded with antiretroviral treatment, the methodologies that can be produced to dispose of these reservoirs or bring them under viable and persevering control, without the requirement for antiretroviral treatment, stay misty. Whichever methods are inevitably tried, be that as it may, they must be tried in a patient populace that is getting blend ART, a treatment that is for the most part powerful and generally safe.

    Antioxidant Potential of Leucas Aspera and Cassia Tora Roots

    By Sandip Shelke*, Dr. Chandanam Sreedhar, Dr. K.B. Chandrasekhar-
    (566) (24)

    Antioxidants are the substances that may protect our cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals may be defined as chemical species associated with an odd or unpaired electron. Cell damage caused by free radicals appears to be a major contributor to aging and degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, immune system decline, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, renal failure, brain dysfunction and stress among others. Leucas aspera is a used orally as stimulant, anthelmintic, laxative, diaphoretic, for the treatment of headache, asthma, and bronchitis. The decoction of roots, stem of Leucas aspera is used orally for high fevers, for influenza, and for malarial fevers. Cassia tora commonly is used as tonic, carminative and stimulant. According to Ayurveda the leaves and seeds are acrid, laxative, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, ophthalmic, liver tonic, cardiotonic and expectorant. This study was aimed to evaluation of anti-oxidant potential of the roots of Leucas aspera and Cassia tora

    Rationale Drug Use In Two Hospitals In Khartoum State: Is There A Role For Clinical Pharmacists?

    By Sahar Mamoun Mohamed Ali Homeida*, Hassan Mohamed Ali Hussein, Esra Nour Aldeen Yamani-
    (566) (24)

    This is a prospective, observational hospital study set out to assess the need for a clinical pharmacist within the hospital. The study was conducted in two hospitals in Khartoum state, Hospital 1 and Hospital 2 during a period of 30 days. The data collected was questionnaire based from all patients attending the Medicine and Paediatric ward (n=140) in the two hospitals, consultants (n=3), registrars (n=3), housemen (n=35) and nurses (n=30). The data was analysed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) computer programme. The investigation examined the major drug use aspects with particular emphasis on the components of drug supply, storage, prescribing, dispensing and treatment monitoring. The overall results from the two hospitals were fairly in good agreement that have warranted justifiably the grounds to reach the following findings; • The main prescribers of drugs in hospitals are the housemen doctors • Lack of adequate awareness of doctors of what drugs their patients are taking or currently using. (As indicated by the discrepancy between the number on record sheet and that directly observation). • All aspects of drug use are handled by co patients. • Advice on dosage regimen aspects as well as side effects to patients was often lacking. This finding are very much indicative of the need to ensure rational medication use in its broad meaning, and area well within the role and responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist as judged by today’s globally established definition of clinical pharmacy ‘ the area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use’.

    Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used In the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State Nigeria

    By Adeogun1, I.I., O.O. Fawibe, A.A. Ajiboye, D.A. Agboola*-
    (566) (24)

    The ethnobotanical survey of the plants used traditionally for treating skin diseases was conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The administration of semi-structured questionnaire and oral interviews methods were employed. Herb sellers, Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMPs), aged people and local farmers were the targeted audience. Plant specimens were collected and identified at the Forestry herbarium, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta. A total of 80 plants species belonging to 42 families were found to be useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, pimples, boils, rashes, measles, small pox, wounds and chicken pox. The family Fabaceae provided the largest number of plant species (Thirteen) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Compositae, and Moraceae with (six, four, three, three plants species respectively). Examples of some plants in these families are: Rauvolfia vomitoria, Vernonia amygdalina, Senna alata, Argemone mexicana which were found to be very important in the recipes based on their frequency of occurrence in the herbal preparation. The main methods of preparation of these herbal recipes were decoction and infusion. Leaves formed the major plant part used (76.3%) followed by stem (11.3%). The survey revealed that residents of this area view herbal treatment as more effective and cheaper compared to orthodox medicine. The medicinal plants used by the people in this area form a rich source of indigenous knowledge which can play a role for therapeutic purposes.

    Assessment of Select Heavy Metals In Serum of Wistar Rats Administered with Fake Paracetamol Syrup

    By Ayobola A Iyanda*-
    (566) (24)

    A number of chemical adulterants or contaminants have been identified in paracetamol syrup in Nigeria, one of the most common ones being diethylene glycol. The presence of heavy metals in therapeutic preparations has also been reported in other parts of the world, with devastating consequences. The aim of this experimental work is to investigate the level of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Ni, As, in the serum of rats administered with fake paracetamol syrup. Twenty-one female rats of average weight of 200 g were randomly divided into 3 groups of 7 rats each. Treatment lasted 21 days and the route of administration was by gastric gavage. The first group received 90 mg/kg of fake Bonadabe paracetamol, the second group was administered with 90 mg/kg BW of genuine Bonadabe® paracetamol and the third group served as the control. Statistical analysis of data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there were no significant differences in the serum levels of all the heavy metals investigated at p>0.05. Results of this study suggest that heavy metal contamination of pediatric drugs may not be common in Nigeria, although such contaminations have been reported for other preparations in some parts of the world.

    Analysis Of Different Teaching Methodologies Applied In Undergraduate Programmes At Various Academic Institutions In Muscat A Survey Based Research

    By AR.Mullaicharam*, Joseph Francis*, Geetali Deori*, Hemalatha Balasubramanian **-
    (566) (24)

    Undergraduate students have the main responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating their effort in self-directed learning. It is an adult learning technique that assumes that the learner knows best what their educational needs are. The facilitator’s role is not only to support in self-directed learning is to support students in identifying their needs and goals for the program, but also to contribute to clarifying the students' directions and objectives and to offer timely feedback. Within the context of self-directed learning, adults can seek out and participate in a variety of teaching methods. It is important to give students opportunities to apply and reflect on lecture material during course time. Most educators agree that lectures are necessary, but that they should be limited in number and well delivered. The aim of this paper is to find out a suitable educational method to get expected educational objectives or learning outcomes from the students.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches of Duloxetine Hydrochloride

    By Dr. Shahi S. R.*, Wani A. U., Kokate S. B., Tanpure C. G.-
    (566) (24)

    The rationale of this study was to develop a matrix-type transdermal patches containing drug duloxetine HCl with different concentrations of hydrophobic polymeric systems (Eudragit RL-100 and RS-100) via the solvent evaporation method using 20% w/w of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBT) as plasticizer, 3% concentrations of DMSO used to increase the transdermal permeation of duloxetine HCl. The drug and polymers physicochemical compatibility were studied by means of FTIR and DSC. Formulated transdermal patches were evaluated for thickness, tensile strength, percent elongation, weight variation, drug content, flatness, folding endurance, water vapour transmission rate, percent moisture uptake, percent moisture content, percent swell-ability and ex vivo permeation studies. Ex vivo permeation studies of all preparations were done by Franz diffusion cells on human cadaver skin. From the experimental results obtained, F5 formulation has been selected as the best formulation. The in vitro permeation profiles of all formulations could be best expressed by Higuchi’s equation (R2 = 0.992 to 0.998) for the permeation of drug from a polymeric matrix, indicating the mechanism of drug release from the prepared films to be diffusion controlled. The results suggested that higher the quantity of eudragit RL 100 in the patch, the superior its strength, flexibility, drug release and skin permeation potential.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Moisturizer Prepared from Natural Sources

    By Ambikar R. B.*, Singh C. K.1, Powar P. V., Sharma P. H.-
    (566) (24)

    Moisturizers are bland oleaginous substances that are used to replace natural skin oils, to cover tiny fissures in the skin, and to provide a soothing protective film. Moisturizers are used in various diseases like Psoriasis, Menopause and in skincare during chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to formulate moisturizer using natural sources and evaluation of in vitro moisture retention. As. there is several disadvantages of chemical based moisturizer; so polymers, mineral oil, petroleum is replaced with Black sesame oil and Pure ghee as it have several benefits. Black sesame oil contains Vitamin E acts as excellent antioxidant which is useful as natural sunscreen moisturizer and Ghee has natural retinol (vitamin A) in it that helps in repairing skin. In-vitro moisture retention was compared between Black sesame oil, Pure ghee and glycerin. Both ingredients showed comparable moisture retention than the glycerin. Moisturizers are formulated using black sesame oil and pure ghee and; evaluated for various parameter. In-vitro comparison of moisture retention of natural moisturizers is done with marketed preparation and both preparations also showed moderate moisture.

    Sustained Release Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System of BCS Class I Drug by Extrusion Spheronization Technique

    By Dr. S. R. Shahi*, Dr. P. K. Puranik, Mr. Amol R. Bare, Sunil B. Kokate, Akash U. Wani-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of the present study is to develop sustained release matrix pellet of Venlafaxine HCl by Extrusion-spheronization. As the drug is BCS Class I i.e. highly water soluble and highly permeable which is formulated to sustained release with HPMC K-100P and ethyl cellulose that deliver sustained release formulation for 24 h. The preliminary formulations are made with different HPMC grades like K-15, K-100P, K-100LV and ethyl cellulose. From preliminary formulations, P1 formulation is chosen for 32 factorial purpose by Design expert software. The F5 factorial formulation has a desired drug release pattern for 24 h.

    Trends in Prostate cancer incidence in Bangalore, India

    By Vijay C R, Gopalakrishnappa B R,Ramesh C,Krishna Reddy K V, Vijayakumar M-
    (566) (24)

    Prostate cancer has emerged as the most frequent cancer amongst men in world and also in Asian countries including India, with incidence increasing rapidly over the past two decades. Incidence has been drastically increasing in the all Indian Urban Registries, although in a few Registries with very significant increasing trend (Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Kamrup). We analyzed a 25 years Population Based Cancer Registry Data at Kidwai memorial institute of oncology (KMIO) for comparison with other registries used national cancer registry report (NCRP). Material and methods: Prostate cancer cases were drawn from Bangalore population-based cancer registry locating at Kidwai memorial Institute of Oncology started in 1982 under national cancer Registry Programme funded by Indian Council of Medical Research. Time trends in sex- and age-standardised cancer incidence rates were analysed by using statistical tools like Joinpoint and Annual parentage Change (APC) over the study period. Results: Prostate cancer being most emerging site with 157.7 relative percentage change by combining first three years of registry started to recent years. Age-standardised prostate cancer incidence rates increased. A significant increased trend over the study period observed a considerable variability in the magnitude of the annual increase approximately 6.5% in Bangalore from 1996 onwards.

    Development of Controlled Drug Delivery System for a Traditional Medicine and Study of Its Antimicrobial Property

    By Lopamudra Bhattacharyya*, Pratip Kumar Debnath, Joyram Hajra, Sachchida Nand Upadhyay, Manoj Kumar Mitra-
    (566) (24)

    Development of a novel drug delivery system to provide sustainable and controlled release of a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, Makaradhwaja (enhances the power of immunity and prevents inflammatory and degenerative changes) has been attempted by using the process of encapsulation into nano porous silica gel matrix. Following entrapment of Makaradhwaja, the synthesized gels have been subjected to characterization by FTIR, HRTEM and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR and HRTEM studies had been done to authenticate the presence of drug molecule into the gel matrix. In FTIR spectrum the broad peaks at 3474 cm-1and 1637 cm-1 are detected due to the presence of Makaradhwaja into silica gel. The entrapment has also been proved by the HRTEM image. Release kinetics in a Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) has been subsequently observed and the UV-visible spectroscopy reveals up to 50% release of drug molecule in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) in 240 hours. The significant antimicrobial activity of the formulation had been observed against three pathogenic bacterial strains i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus by using disc diffusion method Acute oral toxicity study on mice had been done and throughout the two weeks of the treatment no significant changes had been observed in behavioral pattern, clinical sign and body weight of the animals. All data indicates that the formulation could be used as bioactive controlled drug delivery systems.

    Genital Fistula A Case Series Report from A Teaching Hospital In Roraima, Brazil

    By Mário Maciel de Lima Junior*, Cleyton Barbosa Sampaio, Mário Maciel de Lima, Fabiana Granja-
    (566) (24)

    Objectives: Genital fistula is one of the most debilitating conditions affecting females in developing countries and occurs as a result of obstructed labor or gynecological surgeries. The objective of this study was to review the cases of genital fistulae at a teaching hospital in Roraima, Brazil. Methods: Sixteen cases of genital fistulae were treated over a period of six years from 2008 to 2013. These included 15 cases of genitourinary fistulae (vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) = 14, ureterovaginal fistula (UVF) = 1) and one rectovaginal fistula (RVF). Results: The most common cause of fistula formation was total abdominal hysterectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroids (13/16, 81%). The VVFs were all supratrigonal in location and measured from 0.3 to 0.6 cm in length. Fifty percent of the VVFs (7/14) were treated using the transvaginal approach (Latzko’s method), while 36% (5/14) were treated via the transabdominal route. The remaining two VVFs (14%) were treated conservatively using the endoscopic cauterization method. Conclusions: An overall success rate of 100% was observed of which 75% (12/16) were successfully repaired at the first attempt. Follow-up period ranged from seven months to six years and no further complications were noted.

    Validation and Development of New RpHPLC Methods of Levosulphiride Pellets

    By Sandeep Rajan Kolli, K.Mohini Kalyani, P.Uday Bhaskar, K.Vineela-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, economic, selective, precise, Reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography method for analysis of levosulphride pellets 40%, was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The quantification of the drug was carried out using grace smart, 250mm × 4.6mm × 5μm or its equivalent in isocratic mode, with mobile phase compressing of Buffer : Acetonitrile (70:30) The flow rate was 0.8ml/min and the detection was carried out by PDA detector i.e., 237 nm. The retention time for levosulphride pellets was found to be 2.3 min. The percent assay was found to be 98.98%. The method of levosulphride pellets validated for precision, accuracy, linearity range, specificity and robustness.

    Novel UV Spectrophotometric Determination of Rabeprazole Sodium In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    By Sandeep Rajan Kolli, K.MohiniKalyani,B.Lakshmi,K.Vineela-
    (566) (24)

    Rabeprazole (RBZ) sodium is a substituted benzimidazole that inhibits gastric acid secretion and used for the treatment of erosive or ulcerative GERD, DU and hypersecretory syndromes including ZES. In present work, a simple, sensitive, accurate and economical spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Rabeprazole in Bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. An absorption maximum was found to be at 292 nm with the solvent system 0.05N NaOH. The drug follows Beer law in the range of 2-18 μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage recovery of Rabeprazole ranged from 99.8 to 100.2 % in pharmaceuticaldosage form. Results of the analysis were validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and were found to be satisfactory. The proposed method is simple, rapid and suitable for the routine quality control analysis.

    Serum Heavy Metal Study In Female Wistar Rats Administered With Counterfeit Neurobion

    By Ayobola A Iyanda, Dapo P Oparinde-
    (566) (24)

    Purpose: While trace elements are known for the very important role they play as cofactors of diverse biochemical reactions, heavy metal on the other hand have been recognized for their toxic effects and the fact they do not carry out any meaningful role that is beneficial to a living mammalian system. Yet exposure has been reported through different sources, exposure through fake drug administration being one of them. The aim of the present study is to determine the serum levels of Cd, Pb, Al, Si, Hg, Ni, and As in 12-14 weeks old female Wistar rats administered with fake neurobion tablets at 30 mg/kg level. Method: Twelve of the eighteen rats used for the study were divided equally into 2 groups and administered with either 30 mg/kg BW fake neurobion or genuine products. Six other rats served as the control. Route of administration was by gastric gavage and blood was obtained through retro-orbital bleeding. Serum levels of arsenic, cadmium, aluminum, silicon, lead, mercury, and nickel were estimated by the atomic absorption spectrometric method. Statistical analysis was carried out on data obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of all the heavy metals assessed, none was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the absence of the heavy metals in the fake neurobion used for the present study.

    Ethno-religious significance of sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K)

    By Humeera Ayub¹, Reema Goni, Faisal Mushtaq, Rani Magotra-
    (566) (24)

    Present study deals with the compilation, analysis and documentation of information on the sacred plants of District Kishtwar (J&K). A total of 56 species belonging to 55 genera and 31 families have been recorded. These species are distributed within different life forms viz. herbs (73.2%), shrubs (10.7%) trees (12.5%) and climbers (3.6%). Angiosperms is the dominant group with maximum number of sacred plants, while, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms are represented by one species each. The sacred plants and parts of plants utilized thereof are categorized on the basis of their socio-cultural perspective. Traditionally various parts of plants such as leaves (12 spp.), stem/branches (2 spp.), flowers (6 spp.), seeds/grains (16 spp.), fruits (8 spp.), bark (1 sp.), roots/rhizome (2spp.), stigma (1 sp.) and whole plants (10 spp.), are used in different religious ceremonies and social rites. Apart from sacred value, the study also contributed to the ethnomedicinal uses of such plants in the study area. There is a myth related to the sacred plants, if a plant is used for pooja, the same plant can be used as elixir of health. Sacred plants being integral part of biodiversity need proper attention in terms of conservation and sustainable utilization for the present and future use. So, the development of an appropriate strategy for conservation and sustainable utilization of sacred plants is suggested.

    An Antioxidant and Bioactive Compound Studies of Parmelia Perlata, Ganoderma Lucidum And Phellinus Igniarius-Supplimentory Drug

    By Sneha Paul, Anita RJ singh*, Changam Sheela Sasikumar -
    (566) (24)

    Medicinal mushrooms and lichens have been a great demand for their medicinal property and for food supplements. For this study, three extracts have been taken such as Parmelia perlata, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus igniarius; the solvents used for the extraction is aqueous and ethanol. The objective of the work is to qualitative and quantitative analysis of mechanical and nutritional analysis. In vitro analysis of antioxidants and free radical scavenging assay also were done. All the extracts show virtuous amount of bioactive compounds, appreciable amounts of antioxidant compounds and also good free radical scavenging effect against different radicals. This shows a good source for developing a medicinal drug.

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using leaflet extract of Nephrolepis exaltata L. and evaluation of antibacterial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria

    By Gajanan Bhor, Shilpa Maskare, Sujata Hinge, Laxmi Singh, Abasaheb Nalwade*-
    (566) (24)

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) which reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the reaction mixture showed λmax at 420 nm. The average particles size was confirmed by XRD peaks was 24.76 nm. SEM image showed aggregates of spherical silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficiency of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay method. Silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia NCIM 2719, Proteus morgani NCIM 2719, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Pseudomonas testesteroniae NCIM 5098, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Escherichia coli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae. This cost-effective, eco-friendly and easily scald up biosynthesis method of silver nanoparticles using leaflet extract of a fern Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) will be compatible for pharmaceutical and medical applications.

    Development and Validation of HPTLC Densitometric Method for Estimation of Famciclovir in Plasma

    By Vandana Arora Sethi*, Abdul Wadood Siddiqui, Govind Mohan-
    (566) (24)

    A rapid and reproducible HPTLC Densitometric Method has been developed for estimation of famciclovir in plasma. Chromatography was performed on aluminium plates coated with 200micrometre layers of silica gel, using Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (7:2:1) as the mobile phase. Densitometric scanning was performed at 254nm with Camag TLC Scanner III. Linear least-square regression analysis showed there is a good liner relationship between peak area and concentration. The method was found sufficiently accurate and precise for pharmacokinetic studies of the drug.

    Abuse And Misuse Potential of Commonly Used Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) In Indian Scenario, A Pharmacovigilance Model Study

    By Vijay Bhalla*, Uma Kant Bajaj-
    (566) (24)

    Objectives: 1. To find out the incidences and study various aspects of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the patients receiving NSAIDs for more than 15 days 2. To test the impact of pharmcovigilance model study in reporting ADR. Setting: 400 subjects on NSAID’s who are on drug treatment for not less than fifteen days Method: Study in patients on NSAID’s therapy, the data was obtained from Physician records, Community Pharmacists and patients by individual interactions using structured format based on the guidelines of CDSCO. Observations: Out of 400 patients 47 cases of ADRs were reported showing following demographic, 17% population consumed NSAID’s for more than one year period, 36% for more than 6 months, 29% for over 3 months and 13% for more than one month and 6 % for more than 15 days. 49% patients did not follow up with the physician and continued the same therapy while 51 % visited their Physician for follow up check up. 20 % patients were given increased per day dosage while 10% got reduced per day dosage and remaining 70% continued on same dosage regimen. ADR cases in fixed dosage combination were 7% while on monotherapy 5%. ADR cases associated with Etoricoxib 1.9%, Diclofenac 2.1%, Aceclofenac 1.5%, Nimuselide 1.1%, Ibuprofen 1.4% and Paracetamol 0.4%. Commonly encountered ADR reported were of Drowsiness, Diarrhea, Gastro intestinal ulcer, Flatulence, elevated hepatic enzymes during LFT and bio chemical changes in KFT. Conclusion: The evaluation of pharmacovigilance study demonstrated that NSAIDs are the most widely prescribed drugs in the management of pain. Monitoring of ADR is an important tool to prevent the damage to a organ system like Gastrointestinal, Renal system and hepatic functions. Fixed dose combinations of NSAIDs are less prescribed defining rationale use of NSAIDs in Indian scenario. Majority of the ADR reported were of mild to moderate in nature and no serious or severe reaction developed after prescribing NSAIDs which is a positive sign.

    The Blood-Brain Barrier: Implications For Chemotherapy And Its Delivery To The Brain In Primary And Metastatic Brain Tumor, A Novel Approach

    By Safila Naveed*, Khadija Faheem, Faiza Bashir, Angela Maria Bhatti, Hafiza Sidra Salahuddin-
    (566) (24)

    Nearly 12.5 million new cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. Although new treatments have been developed, most new anticancer drugs that are effective outside the brain have failed in clinical trials against brain tumors, in part due to poor penetration across the BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier. Conventional treatment using radiation and intravenous chemotherapy often prove unsuccessful primarily because the anticancer drugs fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities. The focus is now on targeted drug therapy by not only supplementing conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but also by preventing toxicity in normal tissues and drug resistance.Hence this work aims to investigate the therapeutic regimen of primary and metastatic brain tumors and drugs that fail to cross the BBB in sufficient quantities through conventional treatment and a novel approach for the delivery of these drugs. A total number of 30 patients were enrolled from 5 different hospitals of Karachi. Each prescription was scrutinized and the treatment line was noted down. The treatment strategy was the main highlight of this study as to what was planned for the patient to get the most effective result.

    Study on Protective Effect of Omega -3 Fatty Acid Rich Extract of Linium Usitatissimum Seeds on Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    By Priyanka Saini-
    (566) (24)

    There are many diseases that are still considered as untreatable by most of the physicians, and epilepsy is one of those. Traditional healers claim that they can treat epilepsy by use of some natural components. The Indian Traditional Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are predominantly based on the use of herbal drugs/ products for medicinal benefits. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness. One of the important and well-documented uses of plant products is their use as nephro-protective agents. Hence, there is an ever increasing need for safe nephro-protective agent. Oxidative stress is a state where oxidative forces exceed the antioxidant systems due to loss of the balance between them. Thus due to easy availability of plant and its traditional uses, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of plant extract against Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats by using biochemical parameters and antioxidant status in kidney of rats after oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight of extract.

    Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Floating Tablets Of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

    By B.Suribabu*, S.T.V.Raghavamma, S.S Manikiran, N.Ramarao-
    (566) (24)

    The objective of the present study was to develop a bilayer floating tablet for ciprofloxacin HCL using direct compression method. Bilayer floating tablets were designed to prolong gastric retention time and increase the bioavailability of the drug. Bilayer floating tablets contains of two layers, immediate release layer and controlled release layer. Immediate release layer contains sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrating agent and controlled layer contains HPMC K grade polymers as controlled release polymers .Sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas generating agent. The tablets were evaluated for physic-chemical properties such as Bulk density, tap density, hausner’s ratio, compressibility index, angle of repose , hardness, thickness, friability, drug content, floating lag time , floating duration and in- vitro drug release by dissolution studies. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer used in the study. The formulation F8 tablets showed controlled and complete drug released over a period of 12 hrs.

    A Comparative Study on Different Methods of Granulation on Tablet Properties

    By Ranjith Reddy Kondeti*, Kranti Sri Mulpuri, Meghana Koganti, Dr.Grace Rathnam-
    (566) (24)

    The active ingredient in a formulation represents a very small portion of the overall tablet, then the challenge is to ensure that each tablet has the same amount of active ingredient. Sometimes, blending the ingredients is not enough. The active ingredient may segregate from the other ingredients in the blending process. The ingredients may be incompatible because of particle size, particle density, flow characteristics, compressibility, and moisture content. These incompatibilities can cause problems such as segregation during blending or during transfer of the product to the press as well as separation of the active on the tablet press. Granulating the active ingredient by itself and then blending it with the rest of the ingredients is one solution to the segregation problem. Otherwise, all or most of the ingredients could be granulated together. The best course of action to ensure that each tablet contains the correct amount of active ingredient, especially if the active ingredient is only a small percentage of the tablet ingredients, is to mix the active ingredient thoroughly with some or most of the other ingredients and then granulate the blend (i.e., form the blend into granules). Each granule would contain a little of each of the ingredients, and the active ingredient would be distributed evenly. Different granulation techniques include Wet granulation, Dry granulation and Direct Compression. The method of granulation is chosen based on the ingredient’s individual characteristics and ability to flow, compress, eject, and disintegrate. Choosing a method requires thorough investigation of each ingredient in the formula, the combination of ingredients, and how they work with each other. Then, the proper granulation process can be applied. In this study, work was done to evaluate the different process of granulation techniques for the preparation of tablets.

    Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and DNA Binding of Novel Binuclear Antitumor Complexes Formed by Linking Two "2,2'- Bipyridine Palladium (II)" Moieties Via Alkylene Bisdithiocarbamates

    By Ziba Sorinezami, Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi*, Somaye Shahraki, Arezu Ghahghaei, Mahin Doostkami, Adeleh Divsalar, Ali-Akbar Saboury, Mostafa Heidari Majd-
    (566) (24)

    Five novel dithiocarbamate- bridged binuclear palladium (II) complexes [(bpy) Pd (µ-al-bis-dtc) Pd (bpy)](NO3)2 (where alkylenebisdithiocarbamate, al-bis-dtc=ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (en-bis-dtc, 1); propylenebisdithiocarbamate (pn-bis-dtc, 2); butylenebisdithiocarbamate (bu-bis-dtc, 3); hexylenebisdithiocarbamate (he-bis-dtc, 4) and octylenebisdithiocarbamate (oc-bis-dtc, 5) were synthesized with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) as capping ligand (Chart 1). They have been characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies and molar conductance. The results of elemental analysis and conductivity measurements confirmed the stoichiometry of ligands and their complexes while the characteristic absorption bands, resonance peaks in NMR and IR spectra confirmed the formation of ligand frameworks around the palladium ions. The biological activity of these palladium complexes was evaluated on chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562, at micromolar concentration, and their targets seems to be DNA of the cell. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc50) values of complex 2 is lower than cisplatin whereas other complexes show Cc50 values higher than cisplatin. The interaction of these complexes with highly polymerized calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was extensively studied by means of absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence titration spectra, ethidium bromide (EB) displacement and gel chromatography techniques. All of these water soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentration. However, at higher concentration, they denature the DNA. Complexes 1 and 4 break the CT-DNA into two fractions and bound with both of them.

    Anti Oxidant Potential of “Cureit”- A Novel Bio Available Curcumin Formulation

    By Sreeraj Gopi*, Robin George, V. T .Sriraam-
    (566) (24)

    The major impediment towards the use of Curcumin for health benefits is its poor availability in the blood and tissues. This problem can be trounced by our innovative Curcumin preparation. The formulation treats curcumin as it occur inside the turmeric rhizome, where curcumin is more available in the blood. A human study conducted, where the innovative curcumin found to absorb ~15 times more as that of the normal curcumin. This Bio available curcumin was branded as “cureit” and its anti oxidant potential established. The study proves that “cureit” could be good source of natural antioxidant.

    Evaluation of Anti Leishmanial Activities of Withania Somnifera and Solanum Nigrum A Preliminary Study

    By Shagufta Taqvi, Samra Jamal-
    (566) (24)

    This work deals with the study of anti leishmanial activities of plant abstracts that have been evaluated for possible anti leishmanial activities using MTT Assay. In vitro inhibition was observed with chloroform growth and a similar inhibition was obtained with aqueous extract of s.nigrum and all other extracts exhibiting significant toxicity. Promastigotes of L. donovani strain AG83 were routinely cultured at 24OC in M199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U penicillin/ml and 100 µg streptomycin/ml. The IC50 of Pentamidine was found to be 38g/ml while that for w.somnifera and s.nigrum found to be 50g/ml and 58g/ml respectively. This paper records one of the effective measures of cure of the deadly disease by medicinal plants solanum nigrum and withania somnifera against the recent drug pentamidine .

    Oil Extraction from Matured Seeds of Cassia Tora and its Nutritional, Antioxidative Properties

    By Ramakrishnan R, P Samydurai, Saradha M, S Santhoshkumar, K Shanmugasundaram-
    (566) (24)

    The matured seed of Cassia tora was analyzed to extract oil content to determine nutritional and antioxidant properties. The seed oil extracted by the steam distillation method, the nutritional profile, free radical scavenging and phosphomolybdenum reduction assay were also determined. The seed derived extracted oil (41.8%) contained free fatty acids 22.15±1.71%, total amino acids 21.09±1.69%, unsaturated fatty acids of oleic acid (13.31±1.72%), linoleic acid (11.25±1.13%), palmitic acid (12.78±1.21%) and total amino acid. The seed oil possessed significant free radical scavenging activity of IC50 (28.78±0.69) and phosphomolybdenum reduction (52.4±4.32), which was equal to that of rutin (31.56±0.81) as synthetic antioxidant drug. The result of this study revealed that the oil extracted from matured seeds possess reduced fatty acids, higher unsaturated fatty acids, more content of amino acids, free radical scavenging ability and phosphomolybdenum reduced properties. In conclusion, the Cassia tora seed oil may be used as edible in human health and also used for various treatments of rheumatoid, cardiovascular disease and nutritional deficiency.

    Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Spray Containing Anti Acne Agent

    By Ishwar N. Pawar, Roshan R. Rajput, Subhash S.Vaghani, Bhagyashri V. Katara,-
    (566) (24)

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to formulate a novel topical spray containing Antiacne agent. Comprising drug and other non-toxic excipients (mixture of propane and butane) LPG as propellant. Study was designed to increase the absorption of drug from the human skin. Therefore clear clinical need exists for development of suitable formulation of drug that has improved permeability and absorption, with the potential transparent thin film with the once daily dosing. An optimum formulation was to be study for skin irritation study, in-vivo drug release and finally for stability study. Experimental work: The preformulation studies for drug was carried out and compatibility of drug in formulation with different excipients was checked. Solutions for topical sprays were filled in Aluminium containers fitted with continuous spray valve. Primary screening of variables like polymers, penetration enhancers and solvents were done by preparing trial batches. Final batches were prepared comprising of polymer Eudragit E100 (flim forming polymer), penetration enhancers such as IPM and PG act as plasticizer, solvent and co-solvent such as Iso Propyl alcohol and ethanol respectively. Prepared Tazarotene topical spray formulations were evaluated for different parameters. Tazarotene topical spray included determination of delivery rate, delivery amount, pressure test, drug content, minimum fill, leakage test, flammability, spray patterns, particles size, etc and as well as In-vivo Skin irritation study and In-vitro drug released, Finally, optimised formulation Was kept for stability study as per ICH guidelines. Results and discussion: Absence of physical and chemical incompatibility during compatibility study revealed that Tazarotene is compatible with container closure and excipients. Tazarotene topical spray formulation T6 was found to be the best formulation Evaluation data of different formulation for Physico-chemical test, performance test and ex-vivo diffusion studies indicated the effectiveness of IPM as penetration enhancer. T6 was further proved non irritant and stability study in accordance with ICH guidelines indicated that the optimised formulation was stable. Conclusions: A novel type of formulation comprised of Tazarotene, Eudragit E100, IPM and organic volatile and non-volatile solvents, was used to develop a new topical spray formulation. This novel topical spray formulation was transparent solution with good, early evaporation and ease of application. In addition the research results showed the resultant invisible thin film with excellent carrier and permeability enhanced effect of IPM on drug. Finally, skin irritation test proved that the spray formulation was safe to be used for topical delivery. In summary, the novel formulation of Tazarotene, Eudragit E100, IPM and other excipients may provide alternate dosage form to Tazarotene gel formulation.

    Antinociceptive and Neuroprotective Activity of Withania Somnifera (WS) Extract In Rat Model of Vincristine Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    By Arunkumar Choulam-
    (566) (24)

    Peripheral neuropathy is defined as damage to the peripheral nervous system resulting in a syndrome of sensory loss, muscle weakness and atrophy along with vasomotor symptoms, alone or in any combination. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the Antinociceptive and neuroprotective activity of Withania somnifera (WS) extract in rat model of Vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy. This study accomplished that the WS extract improved body weights of the rats which were changed during the experiment, nociceptive threshold estimated to the extent of neuropathic pain by assessing the screening procedures; paw and tail cold allodynia, tail immersion, tail flick, paw heat hyperalgesia, motor in-co-ordination and mechanical hyperalgesia. Withania somnifera extract reversed the vincristine induced anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in rats assessed by estimating the parameters- RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin percentage, hematocrit, platelet count and MCV. Vincristine induced oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreases gluthathione) was attenuated by WS extract which was estimated in sciatic nerve homogenate. The nerve fiber dearrangement which was seen in the histopathological study of sciatic nerve samples against the vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy was reversed by Withania somnifera extract. Administration of WS extract attenuated the physical, behavioral, hematological, biochemical, histopathological parameters in vincristine induced neuropathy. Withania somnifera extract administration is claimed to be useful in the treatment of pain associated with peripheral neuropathy which may be attributed to antinociceptive, immunomodulator, antioxidant, neuroprotective activities supports the ethno-pharmacological activity of WS.

    A Novel RP HPLC Method for Development and Validation of Cilnidipine In Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    By Ruhina Tanweer*, T. Mamatha.-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, Precise, accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. separation was achieved on Symmetry C18 column (4.6 x 150mm), with mobile phase consisting of ortho phosphoric acid buffer pH 4 and Acetonitrile in 60:40, V/V. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and the analyte was monitored at 240nm wavelength. The retention time for cilnidipine was found to be 2.35 min. The linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 5-25ppm and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999. The percentage assay of Cilnidipine was found to be 98.733%. The method was robust and rugged as observed from insignificant variation in the results of analysis by changes in flow rate and analysis being performed on different days. The method was validated for its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the routine estimation of Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Development and Evaluation of Extended Release Microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride using Eudragit and Ethyl Cellulose

    By Nikunja B. Pati*, Sandeep K., S. Mohanty, U. P. Panigrahy-
    (566) (24)

    Extended release microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, a skeletal muscle relaxant which relieves muscle spasm of local origin without interfering with muscle. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride is highly water soluble drug, having low oral bioavailability (33-55%) due to extensive metabolism of drug. And the dosage forms available in market were having trice daily administration. The main objective of present study was developed to improve oral bioavailability, reduce the frequency of drug administration, and improve patient compliance. In this study, extended release microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride was prepared by solvent evaporation techniques using Eudragit RS 100, Eudragit RS&RL 100 and Ethyl cellulose as polymers and yield, particle size, encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro release of the prepared microspheres were evaluated. The results showed that percentage yields were influenced mainly by polymer concentration, type of polymer. The encapsulation efficiencies were desired for all the formulations of microspheres developed. Particle sizes of the microspheres were influenced by the concentration of Polymer, type of polymer and stirring speed. From the results of the in vitro study shows that the desired release rate is achieved by CBRS 4, CBRL 3 and CBEC 4 formulations are releasing the drug up to 12 hrs.

    A Descriptive Study of Childhood Malignancies: A Ten Year Study (1999-2008) In Regional Cancer Centre Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore

    By Ramesh C, Vijay C R, Gopalakrishnappa B R, Appaji L, Venktesh K , Vijayakumar M-
    (566) (24)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the profile of childhood cancers in kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Regional Cancer Centre Karnataka, India during 1999 to 2008. Methodology: It was a retrospective study using hospital based cancer registry records from January 1999 to December 2008. All the children below 15 years with confirmed diagnosis of cancer by means of Clinical, Imaging techniques, histological and cytological examinations were included in this study. Results: There were 79909 new confirmed cases attended outpatient department of KMIO during these 10 years. Among which 3879 were below 15 years of age. An average 388 cases attended per year. Overall pediatric tumors were 4.9% of total cancers. The frequency of cancer was found to be higher among boys (64%) than girls (36%) with a ratio of 1.6:1. Majority of the children were from Karnataka stae (81%) compared to (19%) from others area of India. The results showed that Leukemia (42.9%), Lymphoma (14.1%) and CNS (12.1%) were the commonly found childhood cancers among the children attended at KMIO, Bangalore during data collection period. Other commonly found tumor was bone tumour (5.2%), renal tumour (4.6%). Conclusion:, leukemia, Lymphoma and CNS commonly found in Male children same pattern also observed in females children also from 0-15 ages below 5 years in contradiction to retinoblastoma, hepatic tumour neuroblastoma and renal tumour which were prevalent in children less than 5 years of age.

    Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Emesis

    By Choudhari S.B.*, Nilesh Mahajan, Bhalerao A.V-
    (566) (24)

    Sparingly water soluble drugs such as domperidone offer challenges in developing a drug product with adequate bioavailability. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and cosolvent respectively. The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The dissolution characteristics of solid SEDDS was investigated and compared with liquid SEDDS formulations and commercial formulation to ascertain the impact on self emulsifying properties following conversion. The results indicated that solid SEDDS showed comparable rate and extent of drug dissolution in a discriminating dissolution medium as liquid SEDDS indicating that the self emulsifying properties of SEDDS were unaffected following conversion. Also, the rate and extent of drug dissolution for solid intermediates was significantly higher than commercial tablet formulation. The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability.

    Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levosulpiride and Esomeprazole in their Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Formulation

    By Rachana Patel*, Jagdish Kakadiya, Pinak Patel, Nehal Shah-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, efficient, and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Levosulpiride (LEVO) and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate (ESO) in their combined pharmaceutical formulations has been developed and validated. The separation was carried out on HYPERSIL ODS (C18), 250 x 4.6 mm (5 µm) column using Methanol: Water: Trietylamine in the ratio (50:50:0.1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and effluent was detected at 224 nm. The retention time of LEVO and ESO were 2.51min and 4.52 min. respectively. The linear range was 15-75 μg/ml and 8-40 μg/ml for LEVO and ESO, respectively. Percentage recoveries for LEVO and ESO were 98.30 - 100.6% and 99.5 - 101.25% respectively. All the analytical validation parameters were determined and found in the limit as per ICH guidelines, which indicates the validity of the method. The developed method is also found to be precise and robust for the simultaneous determination of LEVO and ESO in their pharmaceutical formulation.

    Isothermal and Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole by Bottom Ash and Alkali treated Bottom Ash

    By Dr. Lisha Kurup-
    (566) (24)

    The two forms of Bottom Ash used for the adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole are Bottom Ash (BA) activated at 600 °C and activated (at 600 °C) Alkali treated Bottom Ash (ABA). Langmuir isotherm shows greater sorption capacity of ABA for Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole than Bottom Ash. The thermodynamic parameters evaluated show that the adsorption of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the two adsorbents is endothermic in nature whereas adsorption of Sulphamethoxazole shows exothermic nature. Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate sorption energy. Kinetic studies reveal that the processes in all the cases follow Ho Mckay’s pseudo second order reaction. The studies of mass transfer coefficient for Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Sulphamethoxazole adsorption over ABA was higher than BA which suggests that ion-exchange reaction occurs more on ABA.

    Surface Tuning Using Gold Nanoparticles and Mixed Thiols

    By Sanjay.S*-
    (566) (24)

    SAM’s (Self Assembled Monolayer’s) are formed by modifying the glass surface at different stages using Silanes, Gold Nanoparticles (Au NPs) and mixture of thiols of different functional groups, chain lengths and proportionate. The synthesized intermediate surfaces and SAM’s obtained are characterized for understanding their behavior in terms of physical and chemical heterogeneities. The gold nanoparticles behavior can be observed using the visible spectrum obtained from UV spectro-photometer. The change in chemical heterogeneities are observed by measuring the contact angle using two variant small molecular weight liquids (water and ethylene glycol) on various synthesized intermediate surface.

    The Purview of Regulatory Affairs in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    By Chaitanya Prasad Kolla*, Prabodh M, Rastrapal D, Suthakaran R-
    (566) (24)

    A regulatory affair is a profession which acts as a liaison between the pharmaceutical organization and drug regulatory authorities across the world. Each and every country had their regulations which are different to each other; Regulatory professional will collect that information and implements in the company to get their drug marketing approval. The main origin of the formation of this department is various drug disasters happened before Federal Food drug and cosmetic Act. Delay in application filling and marketing approval causes huge monetary losses to the company regulatory professional will try to decrease the time between those. A regulatory professional role lies in product development, clinical trials, and in research and development.

    The Relationship between Clinical Governance and performance indicators in Iranian Hospitals

    By Amir Ashkan Nasiripour , Lida Karbalaee Salmanpour Mamaghani*, Pouran Raeissi-
    (566) (24)

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Healthcare organizations are complicated and their structures, processes and management are of high significance for promoting the quality of clinical care. Clinical governance, as a healthcare quality improvement instrument, detects the complications and tries to solve some of the problems through providing integrated, comprehensive strategies and moving toward quality improvement. The main purpose of present study was to determine the relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators in Iranian hospitals. Methods: The present study was conducted at 16 hospitals (N=16) and their clinical governance performance was evaluated using the Treatment Deputy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) checklist containing all items of the seven clinical governance pillars and their scores; in the end, the total scores of the seven pillars were calculated and considered as the hospital’s score. Performance indicators were also obtained from the statistics department of the hospitals under study. The Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the presence of a relationship between clinical governance and hospital performance indicators. Results: The mean score of the overall performance of clinical governance in the investigated hospitals was 817.93 of 1116 total score; the hospitals were at moderate level considering the performance indicators from March 2012 to March 2013. The maximum correlations belonged to risk management and patient safety(r=0.708, P=0.002)and the minimum was between management and leadership (r=0.505, P=0.046). Conclusion: There was no statistically meaningful relationship between clinical governance and performance indicators of the studied hospitals. Among the seven aspects, risk management and patient safety, use of information, management and leadership as well as clinical audit were positively and significantly associated with clinical governance performance.

    Evaluation Determination of Lack Dose Calculation in Geriatric Patient in Different Hospital Of Karachi

    By Safila Naveed* and Mehwish Ali-
    (566) (24)

    The aim of our study are to quantify those prescription of geriatrics patients in which dose calculation not done on the basis of their body weight ,BMI, age and specially on the basis of their serum creatinin levels so patient becomes more and more malfunction kidney which may leads to other several multiple organ damage and diseases. A research is carried out in Number of individuals who were from different families and different diseases chronic and acute disease admitted in different private and government sectors in various indications . The total 100 individuals male and female both between age group 40-85 yrs .are selected ,the data is collected and statistical calculation shows that there are number of individuals who are using renally excreted drugs without dose calculation, prescribed by doctor, taking self medication or by the advice of store keeper. Some of patients have faced harmful effects and stop taking these medicines.100 patient were evaluated median age ranges (40-85) .our result is concluded that almost all the patients prescription was not calculated and all drugs gives in adult normal doses which may leads to further decline in renal functions and ultimately renal failure and death. The conclusion reveal that there is the most private and government institution sectors , physicians & doctors are not following the prescribing roles to prescribe the prescriptions for patients .due to lack of awareness of prescribing role in prescription or it may can say that lack of interest , leads to highly risk of chronic renal failure in geriatrics.

    Metabolic Control Improves Baroreflex Sensitivity In Diabetic Rats

    By Farah Khaliq*, Adila Parveen, M Fahim-
    (566) (24)

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glycemic control on the baroreflex sensitivity, in rats having uncontrolled diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in healthy male Wistar albino rats by a single intraperitonial injection of Streptozotocin (STZ). Experiments were conducted eight weeks after induction of diabetes. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). Results: After 8 weeks of STZ administration the reflex bradycardia and tachycardia response to hypertension and hypotension respectively were impaired in the diabetic group but improved after one month of Insulin therapy. The decreased body weight, heart rate and blood pressure and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats were improved by Insulin therapy. Insulin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic rats. Conclusions: Results suggest that glycemic control with Insulin improves the altered baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cytokine levels.

    A Case-Control Study of Stomach Cancer In Bangalore, India

    By GopalaKrishnappa B R*, Vijay C R, Ramesh C, Bapsy P P, Uday kumar M, Vijaya kumar M-
    (566) (24)

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for stomach cancer in a Hospital based cancer registry (HBCR) in India, at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology. HBCR data was used to identify cases of stomach cancer, diagnosed between January 2011 to June 2011. Patients accompany used as (not only stomach cancer) controls matched according to sex. A total of 175 cases and 175 controls were interviewed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with the risk of stomach cancer. Among demographic characters significantly increased risk was found for: education and economical status (OR 0.2, p <0.01 and 9.9, p<0.01). Dietary factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk were food grains other than rice, ragi, (OR 0.2, p<0.05), salted meat fish and mutton (OR 1.6, p<0.05). The consumption of vegetables, fruits, egg and fruit juice showed a protective effect. It follows that a developing economy and improvement in living standards, with an associated increased intake of fruit and vegetables and reduced consumption of salt, can contribute to a reduction in the incidence of stomach cancer.

    Evaluation of the Effects of a Single Bolus of Erythropoietin on Reducing the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Control Study

    By Shervin Ziabakhsh Tabary-
    (566) (24)

    Introduction: Atrial Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia developing after coronary artery bypass surgery. Many studies have been done to reduce the incidence of post CABG AF. In our recent study we used Indocid and showed that it can reduce the incidence of AF by reducing the inflammatory reactions. In this study we want to understand if we can reduce the incidence of post CABG AF with reducing the ischemia during the cross-clamp time in CABG by a single bolus of Erythropoietin. Material and methods: 43 patients that were referred to Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) for elective CABG between September 2010 and October 2011 were included in this study and randomly divided into two groups :Erythropoietin group and control group. Patients in Erythropoietin group were treated by common medical therapies and CABG plus 700 IU/kg Erythropoietin (PD Poietin, puyeshdaroo, Iran), intravenously infusion, exactly 5 min after termination of cross clamp: at the start of reperfusion and patients in control group were treated by common medical therapies and CABG surgery plus 10cc normal saline as placebo. Results: There was no significant differences between two control and EPO group according to their age, sex ,involved vessels ,number of grafts, cross-clamp and pump time. There was statistically lower incidence of post CABG AF in EPO group. Discussion: Showing that the incidence of post CABG AF has been reduced by decreasing the cross-clamp time and therefore the ischemia during surgery in our previous study, we planned this study to find that a single bolus of Erythropoietin used in CABG can reduce the incidence of post CABG AF by reducing the ischemia occurred by post perfusion injury

    A Modified Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Fluconazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Using Metronidazole as Internal Standard

    By Safwan Ashour,*, Amir Alhaj Sakur, Manar Kudemati-
    (566) (24)

    Powder (from capsules) or dry suspension, containing ~50 mg of fluconazole (FNZ), was dissolved in methanol, treated with 0.5 mL of metronidazole benzoate (5.0 mg mL-1; internal standard) and diluted to 5 mL with methanol. The solution was analyzed on a capillary glass column TRB-5 (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) operated at 140 °C for 2 min, with a rise of 30 °C min-1 up to 230 °C (held for 4 min) and then increased to a final temperature of 240 oC, with N2 as carrier gas (3 mL min-1) and FID. The injector port and detector temperatures were maintained at 250 °C. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. The retention times were about 8.55 and 10.48 min for fluconazole and I.S., respectively. The calibration graph (peak area) was rectilinear from 31.0 to 607.0 μg mL-1 of fluconazole. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. No interference from any components of pharmaceutical dosage forms or degradation products was observed.

    Association of Plasma Protein C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Men

    By Kholoud S. Ramadan, Olfat A. Khalil, Amal H. Hamza, Safinaz E. El-Toukhy-
    (566) (24)

    Several studies have shown the risk factor causes of coronary heart disease. In this study we tested the hypothesis that plasma protein C level might be used as a biomarker for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The study included 60 men that were classified into 3 groups according to clinical examination; group I set as healthy control group, group II set as patients with ischemic heart disease and group III set as patients suffering from myocardial infarction. Different parameters were measured including, coagulation factor prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and protein C. The activity of the cardiac enzymes (creatine phosphokinase, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase) was also measured. Finally, lipids profile (total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterone (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured. The results demonstrated significant decrease level of protein C and prothrombin concentration (%) in ischemic heart disease and in myocardial infarction (MI) groups, when compared to the control group. Meanwhile, MI group showed more significant decrease comparing to IHD. Plasma protein C might serve as a marker for coronary artery disease in men. Further studies are warranted to bolster the data and to identify pathogenesis links between innate immune system activation and atherosclerosis.

    Nucleotide Sequencing and Putative Conserved Domains Analysis of Clostridium Perfringens Type A Alpha Toxin Gene Strain Isolated in Iran

    By Pilehchian Langroudi R., Khaki P.-
    (566) (24)

    Alpha-toxin is produced by all Clostridium perfringens strains but type A produces higher amounts than the other types. In the present study, an isolation of C. perfringens type A alpha toxin gene cloning in E. coli for in silico analysis of its putative conserved domains sequences and also as a candidate for recombinant vaccine production was studied. High molecular weight genomic DNA of C. perfringens type A was isolated and cpa was amplified using one pair of primers. NdeI and XhoI restriction endonuclease sequences and flanking regions were included in the 5' end of forward end and 3' end of reverse primers, respectively. 1094 bp gene was ligated into 2974 bp pJET1.2blunt recombinant vector and 4068 bp pJETAα recombinant vector was produced. After pJETAα recombinant cloning vector extraction, Nucleotide sequence and 364 amino acids protein sequence was deposited in GenBank. In silico analysis of these sequences showed several putative conserved domains. Region 11-244 is a "ZnPC-S1P1". Region 2-249 is "PLAT". Region 4-246 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 14-207 is a zinc dependent phospholipase C. Region 265-349 is PLAT/LH2 domain. Region274-349 is PLAT domain of 12/15-lipoxygenase. This analysis revealed that amino acids number 15, 72, 130, 134, 140, 152 and 156 are "Zn binding site (ion binding site).

    Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Patches of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride

    By Shinde P. V. *, Shirolkar S. V.-
    (566) (24)

    The present research was designed to evaluate matrix type Metoclopramide hydrochloride transdermal patches. Metoclopramide hydrochloride has an average oral bioavailability of about 75% but it appears to vary from 30 and 100%. So, the present work is an attempt to study effect of variation in Methocel E15LV concentration and study effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic Methocel E15LV – Eudrgit RL100 combination on release profile of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride. All prepared formulations were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties like thickness, moisture uptake, percent flatness, tensile strength, and percent elongation. An attempt was made to get a patch with suitable drug release property as well as physical and mechanical properties. A formulation containing Methocel E15LV 2% has shown good physical, mechanical and in-vitro drug release properties. It also showed good diffusion of Metoclopramide hydrochloride across rat skin.

    Preparation, Characterization and In-Vitro Evaluation of Extended Release of Matrix Tablets

    By S. Chandrashekhar, Dr. Ks. Manjunatha Shetty, B.Ashok, M. Ramesh Yadav, Ajay Kumar. B, A. Manikanta Kumar-
    (566) (24)

    The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate the Papaverine extended release tablet using polymers such as Eudragit grades like RSPO, L100, S100, Polywax and HPMC in order to decrease the dosing frequency. Papaverine extended-release tablets are the hydrochloride of an alkaloid obtained from opium or prepared synthetically. It belongs to the benzylisoquinoline group of alkaloids. The principal therapeutic action of Papaverine is its relaxant effect on smooth muscles, which leads to penile erection.. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated by different parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release study. All the tablets passed the tests. The interaction between drug and polymers were determined by using FTIR studies. The FTIR study reveals that there is no interaction between drug and polymers. Based on in-vitro drug release study F11- formulation showed extended release effect up to 18 hours compared to other formulations. The drug release pattern was followed by First order and Korsmeyer-peppas model.

    Comparative Efficacy of Chlorhexidine and a Herbal Mouth Rinse in Patients with Gingival Inflammation - A Clinical & Microbiologic Study

    By Dr. Shreya Shetty *, Dr. Surya Pillai, Dr. Srirangarajan Sridharan, Dr. Aparna Satyanarayana, Dr. Aparna Rahul -
    (566) (24)

    BACKGROUND: Current trends have witnessed a popular inclination towards the use of herbal products in the field of medicine and dentistry mainly because they are naturally occurring and have fewer side effects. Herbal mouthrinses have been recently introduced with the objective of achieving effective plaque control. Till date, chlorhexidine has been a gold standard with regard to anti-plaque agents. The objective of this randomized double blinded controlled pilot study therefore was to assess and compare for the first time, the clinical and microbiological efficacy of chlorhexidine and a herbal mouthrinse in patients with chronic gingival inflammation. MATERIALS & METHODS:- 40 systemically healthy subjects between the age groups of 18-25 yrs with chronic gingival inflammation received oral prophylaxis as part of phase 1 therapy after which they were asked to refrain from oral hygiene measures, and then randomly divided into 2 groups of 20 patients each, one prescribed chlorhexidine and the other, herbal mouthrinse( hiora) twice daily for 2 minutes for four days. On day 5, subgingival plaque samples were collected for culture. Clinical periodontal parameters viz plaque index, gingival index and oral hygiene index were assessed on day 0 and day 5 and analyzed statistically RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to the clinical parameters and colony counts of the bacteria. However, the chlorhexidine group showed statistically suggestive significance with respect to inhibition of S. mutans(p<0.1) and moderate significance with respect to inhibition of A.comitans.(p<0.05) CONCLUSION Herbal mouth rinses may be as effective as chlorhexidine as chemical anti-plaque agents with fewer side effects. However, alternative study designs using larger sample sizes and longer duration are needed to further reiterate its benefits.

    Ion Chromatography with UV Detection as Sensitive Method for Bromate Determination in Bread

    By Rajmund Michalski*, Aleksandra Lyko-
    (566) (24)

    Bromate is well known as a harmful inorganic disinfection by-product arising during water ozonation. Anyway, it is not the only source of that toxic compound for people. Another example is using a potassium bromate as an oxidant in flour doughs and in bakery industry. It is used as a flour improver that acts as a maturing agent. In the work a method with post-column Derivatization with triiodide and UV detection at 352 was is applied for the determination of bromate in selected breads, rolls, croissants and baguettes bought at Polish supermarkets. Method detection limit is on the level of 0.32 µg L-1, and spiked recovery for bromate was in the range of 96%-104%. The results of this study show that in most of analysed samples there is no bromate or the concentration is very low.

    Anti-Atherosclerotic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Diet Induced Atherosclerosis

    By Swathi Royyala, Sushama Mondi, Uma Maheswara Rao.V, Mounika Talla, Vedasri Ramakrishna-
    (566) (24)

    Objective: Atherosclerosis is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the antiatherosclerotic activity of hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation in experimentally induced atherosclerotic hamsters. Methods: Atherosclerosis was developed in male Golden-Syrian hamsters, which were randomly divided into six groups of five animals each; by feeding with high cholesterol diet for 28 days. Group 1 received normal diet which served as negative control. Group 2 received high fat diet (HFD) which served as positive control. Group 6 served as standard, administered with Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) along with HFD and Group 3, Group 4 and group 5were administered with hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation (200 mg/kg, 300 and 400 mg/kg) along with HFD. Results: Hydroalcoholic extract of polyherbal preparation reduced the raised serum level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increased the serum HDL level as compared to the control group. Hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal preparation treated groups (200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg) exhibited less damage to endothelial lining of aorta as compared to control group, which may be attributed to hypo-cholesterolemic activity of polyherbal preparation, which may be attributed to anti-atherosclerotic activity of polyherbal preparation. Conclusion: Our study indicates that high dose of hydroalcoholic extract of polyherbal formulation exerts potent anti-atherosclerotic effect in atherosclerotic hamsters.

    Composition, Characterization and Application of Fast Dissolving Oral Film-A Review

    By Navneet Kumar Verma*, Chaudhari Sunil Kumar, Harendra Prasad, Shobhit Prakash Srivastava, Vikash Chandra-
    (566) (24)

    Fast dissolving drug delivery systems (FDDDS), such as, Fast Dissolving Oral Films (FDOF) or Oral Thin Films (OTFs), offer a convenient way of dosing medications, not only to special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as Pediatrics and Geriatrics, but also to the general population. FDDDS have been developed as an alternative to conventional dosage form as an oral means of drug delivery in case of chronic conditions. Now a day's fast dissolving films are preferred over conventional tablets and capsules for masking the taste of bitter drugs to increase the patient compliance. FDOF consist of a very thin oral strip which dissolves in less than one minute when placed on the tongue. Dissolvable oral thin films are in the market since past few years in the form of breath strips and are widely accepted by consumers for delivering vitamins, vaccines and other drug products. FDOF are the novel dosage forms that disintegrate and dissolve within the oral cavity. Intra-oral absorption permits rapid onset of action and helps by-pass first-pass effects, thereby reducing the unit dose required to produce desired therapeutic effect. The present review provides an overview of Composition Characterization and Application of FDOF. The ultimate goal of this drug delivery system is the successful delivery of the drug to the body.

    Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric Method For The Determination of Cefadroxile And Cefuroxime Sodium In Pharmaceutical Formulations Via Derivitization With 8-Hydroxy-1,3,6-Pyrenesulfonic Acid Trisodium

    By Shazalia M. A. Ahmed , Abdalla A. Elbashir-
    (566) (24)

    A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the determination of two cephalosporins, namely; cefadroxile (cefa) and cefuroxime sodium (cefu) in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the derivatization of cephalosporins with 1-hydroxy-3, 6, 8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt, (HPTS). Effects of pH, temperature, standing time and HPTS concentration on the determination of cefi, ceph and cefo, have been examined. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration of 1-6, and 0.5-3 μg/mL for cefa and cefu respectively. The detection limits were found to be 0.36 and 0.14 μg/ mL for cefa and cefu respectively,and recovery in range form 95.94-99.53 and 95.27-96.06 for cefa and cefu respectively. This method is simple and can be used for the determination of cefa and cefu in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Pharmacognostical Investigations on Medicinal Plants

    By F. EL Babili.*, I. Fouraste, M. EL Babili, C. Chatelain-
    (566) (24)

    Plants have always been used by humans to find cures for its diseases. After a prosperous period for synthetic molecules, the craze for natural plant substances is now a fact. The expanding market for medicinal plants, because of globalization, requires technical botanical identifications, standardized, to allow a secure commerce. The aim of our work is to establish a pharmacognostical standard methodology, through various examples, leading to useful standards trade of medicinal plants. This study, divided into three parts, include macroscopic and microscopic analysis of Origanum compactum, Opuntia ficus indica, Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra. Another part of this work concerns the screening phytochemicals such as TLC for Viburnum, Hieracium pilosella and Secale, HPLC chromatographic profiles for Vitex agnus castus and Stephania tetrandra and UV dosage on Hieracium pilosella, which allowed us to highlight the main phytochemical markers for each plant, for example. These results provide on the one hand, qualitative characterization by TLC and also quantitatively by HPLC and UV dosage. The last part of our work concerns the evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of Hieracium pilosella, Piper nigrum and Piper longum. This work shows the usefulness of such analysis to create a standardized method for botanical and chemical identification, always necessary before using medicinal plants.

    Formulation and Evaluation Of Dispersible Tablets of Cefpodoxime Proxetil

    By Suryawanshi SD*, Thakker SP, Sandesh SN, Ladkat VD, Pandey DG-
    (566) (24)

    The demand of solid oral drug delivery systems has been growing during the last decade especially for geriatric and pediatric patients because of difficulties in administration through other routes. Hence the present research work is directed towards development of dispersible tablets of cefpodoxime proxetil using direct compression attributed to rapid disintegration of dispersible tablet in water forming a stabilized dispersion. These tablets were prepared by using crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants in different concentration. Total nine formulations were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release (all tests were performed as mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia IP or USP). The stability studies were performed as per ICH guidelines. Stability study of final batch showed no significant changes in tablet properties. F9 formulation was found to be superior as it showed better results than other formulations disintegration time, percentage drug release and dispersion time were 26 seconds, 98.83% and 31.1 seconds respectively. Showing better disintegration time and drug release than other formulation

    Are Topical Steroids Useful In Treating Children With Eosinophilic oesophagitis

    By Dr. Nandhini Kumaraguru-
    (566) (24)

    Clinical Question Are topical steroids useful in treating children with Eosinophilic oesophagitis? Scenario A fifteen year old known asthmatic girl presents to A&E with recurrent episode of vomiting, history of chest pain and difficulty swallowing foods. She has strong history of atopy and has been prescribed oral aerosolised Fluticasone propionate for treatment of Eosinophilic oesophagitis after attempts of failed exclusion diets. Being a teenager, there was lot of anxiety involved in using oral steroid due to issues with body image, growth impairment and other side effects. You wonder if topical steroid as an alternative is efficacious in treating Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Novel Carrier Systems For Oral Delivery Of Insulin

    By Prashant V. Shinde-
    (566) (24)

    The oral route is considered to be the most convenient and desired route of drug delivery, especially when repeated or routine administration is necessary 1. Insulin is usually administered to diabetic patients through subcutaneous injection. However, the problems encountered with subcutaneous insulin injections are pain, allergic reactions, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin lipodystrophy around the injection site 2. Insulin if administered via the oral route will help eliminate the pain caused by injection, psychological barriers associated with multiple daily injections such as needle anxiety 3 and possible infections 4. In addition, oral insulin is advantageous because it is delivered directly to the liver, its primary site of action, via the portal circulation, a mechanism very similar to endogenous insulin; subcutaneous insulin treatment however does not replicate the normal dynamics of endogenous insulin release, resulting in a failure to achieve a lasting glycemic control in patients 5, 6. In light of the above distinct benefits, pharmaceutical technologists have been trying to design an oral delivery system for insulin. Such is the interest in oral insulin delivery that some pharmaceutical companies are solely focused on it.

    Formulation and Evaluation Of Mouth Dissolving Tablet Of Olanzapine By Coprocessing Superdisintegrants

    By Mr. Vinayak Mundhe*, Shailesh Burande, Mr. Arun Kondapure, Mr. Vilas Arsul, Sharda Zarekar-
    (566) (24)

    The scenario present in this article is to focus on areas of research in caner and its therapy. An outline is explained here related to cancer and its therapeutics. It is possible to design and construct targeted with least side effects system by application of nanotechnology. At Nano scale, novel properties are present with nanoparticle making them magic bullets to kill various diseases. Here it is explored that nanoparticles have so much potential to be used as carriers, selective, targeted system. In the recent years, due to lots of changes and advancement in technique, facility etc. scope for dosage form design has been widened.

    Papain Hydrogel with Polysorbate Critical Micelle Concentration and Thermodynamics Stability

    By Nicoletti, C.D.*; Ferreira, V. F.; Cruz, R.C. ; Futuro, D.O.-
    (566) (24)

    Critical Micelle Concentration is a surfactant concentration above which micelles form. Micelle formation favors solubilization of poorly soluble substances in a required middle. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme used in wound care. It is partially soluble in water and slightly stable in formulations. Hydrogel has been prepared with papain and polysorbate 80 as a solubilizing agent serially, with and without L-cysteine. This study aimed to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) by measuring surface tension (Du Nouy) and thermodynamic stability using zeta potential technique. The use of L-cysteine caused a decrease in CMC, and polysorbate 80 almost achieved a zero zeta potential. Nevertheless, in both serials, papain hydrogels were homogeneous and thermodynamically stable.

    Anticonvulsant Activity of Catharanthus Roseus Leaf

    By Manisha Shinde*, Sanjay Chaudhari, Ritu Gilhotra-
    (566) (24)

    Epilepsy is a neuropsychological disorder which causes seizures .The seizures are occurs due to imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In the present study the Petroleum ether extract of Catharanthusroseus at the dose of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg was screened for anticonvulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole induced seizure test model. From present study it was observed that at the dose of 400mg/kg the petroleum ether extract showed better anticonvulsant activity.

    Development and Characterization of Emulgels For Treatment of Chronic Wounds

    By Ferreira, P.G.; Souza, R.S.; Costa, V.G.; Ferreira, V.F.; Cruz, R.C.; Futuro, D.O.-
    (566) (24)

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation for wound healing using Carbopol 940 as the gelling agent and isopropyl myristate as the oily phase. The prepared emulgels were evaluated regarding their rheological behavior and zeta potential. Accelerated stability analyses are a common approach for predicting the long-term stability of pharmaceutical formulations. Five formulations differing only in the proportions of the gel and emulsion were stored for 90 days under two different temperature-controlled conditions (-5 ºC ± 2 ºC/ 45 ºC ± 2 ºC). Zeta potential and rheology measurements indicated that formulations F2 and F3 showed better characteristics for use in treating chronic wounds. Stability analyses showed that the rheological behavior and zeta potential of all of the prepared emulgels remained unchanged during storage for 90 days. As a general conclusion, the results indicated that the emulgel formulations were successful concerning all of the parameters evaluated for wound healing.

    Isolation and Characterization of Anti Sickling Bioactive Compounds from Seeds of Picralima Nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae)

    By Felix N. Osuala, Uchenna E. Odoh-
    (566) (24)

    Aim: To isolate and Characterize the anti-sickling bioactive compounds of Ethanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The fresh matured fruits (8 kg) of P. nitida were cut into transverse section to expose the seeds, The seeds were air-dried and then pulverized into a homogenous powder, The organoleptic properties (taste, colour, odor, texture) of the powdered P. nitida were determined using the sensory organs. A 2.5 kg pulverized seeds were extracted with methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator to yield a dried residue. The methanol extract of Picralima nitida was then defatted using n-hexane. The extract was successively fractionated with different solvents, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 50% ethanol in increasing order of polarity to obtain the chloroform fraction (CF), dichloromethane fraction (DCMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and ethanol fraction. Antisickling activity tests were carried out on all the fractions at the same time, comparing their antisickling activities with that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (positive control). The Ethanol Fraction which has the greatest anti sickling activity was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The fractions based on bioactivity-guide, were eluted with gradient mixtures followed by a preparative TLC using EtOAc:MeOH (2:3) as solvent system to get compounds 1 and 2.The structures of the isolated active compounds were elucidated using spectrophototropic analyses. Result: The two compounds were identified as (19∝)-16, 17-didehydro-19-methyl-oxayohimbin-16-Carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine) and (19∝)-19-methyl-2-oxoformosanan-16-carboxylic acid methyl ester (Ajmalicine Oxindole B). Ajmalicine showed significant antisickling effect (97 %) when compared to the standard drug (50 %). Ajmalicine Oxindole B Showed (90 %) antisickling effect at concentration 2.5 mg/ mL at 90 minutes incubation in HbSS blood. Conclusion The seeds of Picralima nitida possesses antisickling effect and could serve as a lead to produce further antisickling drug.

    Formulation of an Optimised Glimepiride Compression Coated Tablets for Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery

    By Airemwen C O, Uhumwangho M U and Obakpolor S O-
    (566) (24)

    Background: Chronopharmaceutics is an aspect of pharmaceutics devoted to the formulation of drug delivery systems that release their active ingredients at a rhythm that ideally matches the physiological requirement of a particular disease condition. Objective: The aim of the present study is to formulate an optimized coated glimepiride time release tablets (CGTRT) containing glimepiride, a third generation sulphonylurea in the inner core for chronotherapeutic drug delivery system. Method: Glimepiride core tablets (GCT) containing Anacardium occidentale gum (10 %w/w) as binder and maize starch as disintegrant (10 %w/w) were prepared at compression pressure of 30 unit on the arbitrary load scale. CGTRT containing Anacardium occidentale gum powder with sodium starch glycolate at varying concentration (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%w/w) were also prepared at 30 unit on the arbitrary load scale. The parameters determined were hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and in vitro drug release profile. Result: The hardness value of the core tablet and market formulation was > 4.1 Kpa while their friability values were 1.7% (core) and 1.2% (market formulation). The core tablet and market formulation disintegrated in 7min and 6min respectively, while their drug content was > 97%. The hardness and friability values of the CGTRT were > 12 KPa and < 0.59% respectively. All CGTRT displayed different lag time and this was dependent on the concentration of the sodium starch glycolate incorporated into the CGTRT. The drug content of the formulations was > 94%. Conclusion: CGTRT1 with a lag time of 6 h before release of glimepiride was taken as the optimized formulation..